Advertisement

Understanding the Regulation of Ecological Food in China: Regulatory Intermediation, Path Dependence and Legal Pluralism

  • Francis Snyder
Chapter
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Ensuring food safety and quality for ordinary people in China is a continuing challenge. Among the major responses to this challenge has been ecological food, which can be defined as the product of ‘ecological agriculture (shengtai nongye). Ecological food in China takes three principal forms: hazard-free food (wu gonghai, also known as ‘pollution-free’ or ‘no public harm’ food), green food (lűse shipin) and organic food (youji shipin). This chapter identifies the major factors which have shaped the regulation of ecological food in China. It first examines how these forms of ecological food have been regulated so far. It then offers a theoretical explanation for the co-existence of these forms by referring to the theories of regulatory intermediaries, path dependence and legal pluralism. The discussion shows that the distinctive Chinese pattern of regulating ecological food tends to perpetuate lack of consumer trust, domestic regulatory competition, tensions between different economic interests, and conflicts among national food policy objectives. It also suggests, however, that the Chinese model may in the short run be a useful template for many other countries seeking to improve food safety and food quality, while in the long run it appears to be consistent with current global developments in the regulation of ecological food.

Keywords

China Food quality Ecological food Organic food Green food Regulatory intermediary theory (RIT) Path dependence Legal pluralism 

Glossary of Acronyms

AFN

Alternative Food Network

AQSIQ

Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine

CAA

Certification and Accreditation Administration

CAC

Codex Alimentarius Commission

CCP

Chinese Communist Party

CNAB

China National Accreditation Board for Certifiers

CNAL

National Accreditation Board for Laboratories

CNCA

China National Certification Administration

COFCC

China Organic Food Certification Centre

CSA

Community Supported Agriculture

GFDC

Green Food Development Centre

GTZ

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit

IFOAM

International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements

INR

International normative repertoire

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

MEP

Ministry for Environmental Protection

MOA

Ministry of Agriculture

NDRC

National Development and Reform Commission

NIES

Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science

OBOR

One Belt, One Road

OCIA

Organic Crop Improvement Association

OFDC

Organic Food Development Centre

RIT

Regulatory intermediary theory

SEPA

State Administration for Environmental Protection

SFS

State Farm System

SRI

Silk Road Initiative

TNR

Transnational normative repertoire

WTO

World Trade Organization

References

  1. Abbott KW, Levi-faur D, Snidal D (2017a) Theorizing regulatory intermediaries: the RIT model. Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci 670(1):14–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbott KW, Levi-Faur D, Snidal D (2017b) Enriching the RIT Framework. Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci 670(1):280–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AQSIQ (2001) 《国家质量监督检验检疫总局办公厅关于印发<无公害农产品标志管理规定>的通知》(2001)Google Scholar
  4. AQSIQ (2013) Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine Administrative Measures on Organic Product Certification (AQSIQ Decree No. 155) Decree No. 155, “Administrative measures on organic product certification” adopted by the Bureau executive meeting of Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) on April 23 2013, is hereby promulgated and shall be put into force from April 1 2014. 《有机食品认证管理办法》Administrative Measures on Organic Product Certification (AQSIQ Decree No. 155). http://www.aqsiq.gov.cn/xxgk_13386/jlgg_12538/zjl/2013/201311/t20131120_387865.htm; https://wenku.baidu.com/view/6c75b9d5de80d4d8d15a4ff9.html (English version), 10 October 2017
  5. AQSIQ’s Notice on Issuing Pollution-Free Agricultural Product Certification Management (2001). http://www.pkulaw.cn/fulltext_form.aspx?Db=chl&Gid=70f7e912b06b5e02bdfb&keyword=无公害农产品&EncodingName=&Search_Mode=accurate&Search_IsTitle=0 (Chinese version)
  6. Arcuri A (2015) Global food safety standards: the evolving regulatory epistemology at the intersection of the SPS agreement and the codex Alimentarius commission. In: Delimatsis P (ed) The law, economics and politics of international standardisation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 79–103Google Scholar
  7. Arthur WB (1989) Competing technologies, increasing returns and lock-in by historical events. Econ J 99:116–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arthur WB (1994) Increasing returns and path dependence in the economy. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arthur WB, Ermoliev YM, Kaniovski YM (1987) Path-dependence processes and the emergence of macro-structure. Eur J Oper Res 30:294–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aschemann J, Hamm U, Naspetti S, Zanoli R (2007) The organic market. In: Lockeretz W (ed) Organic farming: an international history. CABI International, Boston, pp 123–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Augustin-Jean L (2014) An approach to food quality in China: an agenda for future research. In: Augustin-Jean L, Bjørn Alperman B (eds) The political economy of agro-food markets in China: the social construction of markets in an era of globalization. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bavinck M (2018) Legal pluralism, governance, and the dynamics of sea food supply chains – explorations from South Asia. Marit Stud 17:275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bekele GE, Zhou D, Kidane AA, Haimanot AB (2017) Analysis of organic and green food production and consumption trends in China. Am J Theor Appl Bus 3(4):64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berman PS (2012) Global legal pluralism. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berti R (2015) Organic food in China: the law behind Lüse Shipin and Youji Shipin. GeoProgress J 2(1):45–54Google Scholar
  16. Bourdieu P (1987) The force of law: toward a sociology of the juridical field. Trans. Terdiman R. Hastings Law J 38:814–853Google Scholar
  17. Braithwaite J, Drahos P (2000) Global business regulation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. Buck D, Getz C, Guthman J (1997) From farm to table: the organic vegetable commodity chain of northern California. Sociologia Ruralis 37(1):3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bűthe T, Mattli W (2011) The new global rulers: the privatization of regulation in the world economy. Princeton University Press, PrincetonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. CABI (2019) Integrated crop management. https://www.cabi.org/about-cabi/cabi-centres/switzerland/integrated-crop-management/. Accessed 29 Apr 2019
  21. Campbell TC, Campbell TM II (2006) The China study. Benbella Books, DallasGoogle Scholar
  22. Capra F, Mattei U (2015) The ecology of law: toward a legal system in tune with nature and community. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., OaklandGoogle Scholar
  23. CCIC (1996) China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development Working Group on Trade and Environment, ‘China Greenfood Development and Environmental Protection’. Research report, September. https://www.iisd.org/pdf/greenfood.pdf, 13 April 2019
  24. Chen A, Scott S, Si ZZ (2018) Top-down initiatives: state support for ecological and organic agriculture in China. In: Scott S, Si ZZ, Schmilas T, Chen A (eds) Organic food and farming in China: top-down and bottom-up ecological initiatives. Routledge, London/New York, pp 38–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clapp J, Fuchs D (2009) Agrifood corporations, global governance, and sustainability. In: Clapp J, Fuchs D (eds) Corporate power in global agrifood governance. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. CNAS (2019) China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment, ‘CNAS Introduction’. https://www.cnas.org.cn/english/introduction/12/718683.shtml
  27. Cody S (2019) Exemplary agriculture: independent organic farming in contemporary China. Palgrave Macmillan, Springer, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. COFCC (2019) China Organic Food Certification Centre. http://www.ofcc.org.cn/en/index.php?optionid=962. Accessed 6 May 2019
  29. Collier RB, Collier D (1991) Critical junctures and historical legacies. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1750509. Published as Chapter 1 in Collier RB, Collier D. Shaping the political arena: critical junctures, the labor movement, and regime dynamics in Latin America. Princeton University Press, Princeton
  30. Conrad B (2017) Environmental policy: curtailing urban air pollution. In: Heilmann S (ed) China’s political system. Rowman & Littlefield, London, pp 356–361Google Scholar
  31. David PA (2001) Path dependence, its critics and the search for “historical economics”. In: Garrouste P, Ioannides S (eds) Evolution and path dependence in economic ideas: past and present. Edward Elgar Publishing Company, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  32. Delimatsis P (2015a) Introduction: continuity and change in international standardisation. In: Delimatsis P (ed) The law, economics and politics of international standardisation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Delimatsis P (ed) (2015b) The law, economics and politics of international standardisation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  34. Demick B (2011) In China, what you eat tells who you are. Los Angeles Times, September 16. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/sep/16/world/la-fg-china-elite-farm-20110917. Accessed 18 Sept 2011
  35. Denmark (2015) Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, The Trade Council. Report: Organic Food and Agriculture in China, Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Team, Case No.160058, 12.02.2015. https://kina.um.dk/documents/reportfinal-januar2015.pdf
  36. Dolan SP, Heirbaut D (eds) (2015) The law’s many bodies. Duncker & Humbolt, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  37. Ehrlich E (1936) Fundamental principles of the sociology of law (trans: Moll WL). Reprinted by Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, 2002Google Scholar
  38. Eisenman J (2018) Red China’s green revolution. Columbia University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Falk Moore S (1973) Law and social change: the semi-autonomous social field as an appropriate subject of study. Law Soc Rev 7(4):719–746. Reprinted in Falk Moore S, Law as process: an anthropological approach. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fligstein N (2013) Understanding change and stability in fields. Res Org Behav 33:39–52Google Scholar
  41. Food Safety Law of the People’s Republic of China 2015Google Scholar
  42. Foodtank (2015) 19 Organic Food Organizations and Businesses Working to Protect Consumers and the Global Environment, September 2015. https://foodtank.com/news/2015/09/nineteen-organic-food-organizations-and-businesses-working-to-protect-cons/. Accessed 16 May 2019
  43. Foster KW (2015) Embedded within state agencies: business associations in Yantai. In: Unger J (ed) Associations and the Chinese state: contested spaces. Routledge, New York, pp 117–148. First published M.E. Sharpe, 2008Google Scholar
  44. Freyer B, Bingen J (eds) (2015) Re-thinking organic food and farming in a changing world. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  45. Freyer B, Bingen J, Klimek M, Paxton R (2015) Feeding the world – the contribution of IFOAM principles. In: Freyer B, Bingen J (eds) Re-thinking organic food and farming in a changing world. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 81–102Google Scholar
  46. Garnett T, Wilkes A (2014) Appetite for change: social, economic and environmental transformations in China’s food system. Food Climate Research Network, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. Geier B (2007) IFOAM and the history of the international organic movement. In: Lockeretz W (ed) Organic farming: an international history. CABI International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  48. Granovetter M (1985) Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness. Am J Sociol 91:481–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Granovetter M (1992) Economic institutions as social constructions: a framework for analysis. Acta Sociologica 35(1):3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Griffiths J (1986) What is legal pluralism. J Leg Pluralism Unofficial Law 18(24):1–55Google Scholar
  51. Grindley P (2002) Standards strategy and policy: cases and stories. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  52. Guthman J (1998) Regulating meaning, appropriating nature: the codification of California organic agriculture. Antipode 30(2):135–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guthman J (2014) Agrarian dreams: the paradox of organic farming in California, 2nd edn. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  54. Halliday TC, Shaffer G (eds) (2015) Transnational legal orders. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  55. Heilmann S, Shih L (2017) The central government. In: Heilmann S (ed) China’s political system. Rowman & Littlefield, London, pp 76–82Google Scholar
  56. Ho N (2019) A look into traditional Chinese administrative law and bureaucracy: feeding the Emperor in Tang Dynasty China. Univ Pa Asian Law Rev 15:2. accepted for publicationGoogle Scholar
  57. Ho P, Edmonds RL (eds) (2008) China’s embedded activism: opportunities and constraints of a social movement. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Howard PH (2016) Concentration and power in the food system: who controls what we eat? Bloomsbury Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  59. Hughner RS, Mcdonagh P, Prothero A, Shultz CJ, Stanton J (2007) Who are organic food consumers? A compilation and review of why people purchase organic food. J Consum Behav 6(2-3):94–110.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. IFOAM (2019a) Organics international. ‘Definition of organic agriculture’. https://www.ifoam.bio/en/organic-landmarks/definition-organic-agriculture. Accessed 15 Apr 2019
  61. IFOAM (2019b) IFOAM organics international, directory of affiliates. China Organic Food Certification Center. https://directory.ifoam.bio/affiliates/759-china-organic-food-certification-center. Accessed 12 May 2019
  62. Ilcan S, Phillips L (2006) Circulations of insecurity: globalizing food standards in historical perspective. In: Bingen J, Busch L (eds) Agricultural standards: the shape of the global food and fiber system. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 51–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jensen HH, Zhou JH (2015) Food safety regulation and private standards in China. In: Hammoudi A, Grazia C, Surry Y, Traversac J-B (eds) Food safety, market organization, trade and development. Springer, Heidelberg/New York/Dordrecht/London, pp 167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Karpik L (2010) Valuing the unique. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  65. Katto-Andrighetto J, Kirchner C Moura e Castro F, Varini F (2019) Participatory guarantee schemes in 2018. In World 2019 at 161–166Google Scholar
  66. Klein JA (2009) Creating ethical food consumers? Promoting organic foods in urban Southwest China. Soc Anthropol 17(11):74–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Klein JA (2015) Eating green: ecological food consumption in urban China. In: Kim KO (ed) Re-orienting cuisine: East Asian foodways in the twenty-first century. Berghahn, Oxford/New York, pp 238–262Google Scholar
  68. Klutzz DN (2019) The path of the law review: how interfield ties contribute toinstitutional emergence and buffer against change. Law Soc Rev 51:239–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lam WW-L (ed) (2018) Routledge handbook of the Chinese Communist Party. Routledge, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Lam TC, Perry JL (2001) Service organizations in China: reform and its limits. In: Lee PNS, Lo CWH (eds) Remaking China’s public management. Quorum Books, Westport, pp 19–40Google Scholar
  71. Lepeintre J, Sun JJ (eds) (2018) Food safety governance in China. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  72. Lewin K (1951) Field theory in social science: selected theoretical papers (ed D Cartwright). Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Li X (2014) The making of organic agriculture in China: boundaries, standards, and controversies. A dissertation submitted to Michigan State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sociology –Doctor of Philosophy 2014Google Scholar
  74. Li J (2018) China’s new environment ministry unveiled, with huge staff boost, China Dialogue, 19 April 2018. https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/10599-China-s-new-environment-ministry-unveiled-with-huge-staff-boost. Accessed 12 May 2019
  75. Lieberthal KG, Lampton DM (eds) (1992) Bureaucracy, politics and decision making in post-Mao China. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  76. Lieberthal K, Oksenberg M (1989) Policy making in China. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  77. Liu R, Pienuak Z, Verbeke W (2013) Consumers’ attitudes and behaviour towards safe food in China: a review. Food Control 33(1):93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lockeretz W (2007) Organic farming: an international history. CABI International, Wallingford/BostonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Loconto A, Van der Kamp M (2015) Differentiating organics: performing multiple objects to organize singular markets for organic tea and biscuits in the UK. In: Freyer B, Bingen J (eds) Re-thinking organic food and farming in a changing world. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 61–80Google Scholar
  80. Luo H, Song GD (2013) Soft law governance: towards an integrated approach (trans: Armour B, Tong HL, William S). Hein & Co., BuffaloGoogle Scholar
  81. Mahoney J (2000) Path dependence in historical sociology. Theory Soc 29(4):507–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mamas S (2019) All your questions about organic food, answered, 28 August 2018 [written by FIELDS Online Supermarket]. http://shanghaimamas.org/all-your-questions-about-organic-food-answered/. Accessed 13 May 2019
  83. MARA (2012) Ministry of agriculture and rural affairs of the People’s Republic of China. White Paper on Food Quality and Safety, 26 April 2012. http://english.agri.gov.cn/hottopics/apq/201301/t20130115_9553.htm
  84. Marchesini S, Hasimu H, Spadoni R (2010) An overview of the organic and green food markets in China. In: Haas R, Canavari M, Slee B, Tong C, Anurugsa B (eds) Looking east, looking west: organic and quality food marketing in Asia and Europe. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, pp 155–172Google Scholar
  85. Marques JC (2019) Private regulatory capture via harmonization: an analysis of global retailer regulatory intermediaries. Regul Gov 13:157–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mattli W, Seddon J (2015) The power of the penholder: the missing politics in global regulatory governance analysis. In: Delimatsis P (ed) The law, economics and politics of international standardisation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 169–198eCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Merry SE (1988) Legal pluralism. Law Soc Rev 22(5):869–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mertha AC (2005) The politics of piracy: intellectual property in contemporary China. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  89. Meyer T, de Sales Marques JL (eds) (2018) Multiple modernities and good governance. Routledge, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. MOA (Ministry of Agriculture) (2012) Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China, Order No. 6 of the Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China, approved at the 7th executive meeting of the Ministry of Agriculture on June 13, 2012, promulgated on July 30, 2012, and implemented as of October 1, 2012, Article 2, signs. http://jiuban.MOA.gov.cn/zwllm/tzgg/bl/201208/t20120802_2814698.htm
  91. OCIA International (2019) Website at: http://www.ocia.org/. Accessed 13 May 2019
  92. OFDC (2019) Organic Food Development Center of MEP, China (OFDC-MEP), HJomepage: Home>About OFDC>Achievements>Introduction. Available at https://ofdc.org.cn/en/article.asp?c_id=67
  93. Organic Farm (2019) Organic farm VIP delivery service, available in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. http://vip.organicfarm.com.cn. Accessed 15 May 2019
  94. Pacific Organic Policy Toolkit (2016) Organic standards and regulations. http://www.organicpasifika.com/poetcom
  95. Pauli J (2007) China’s organic revolution. J Organ Syst 2(1):1–11Google Scholar
  96. Pierson P (2000) Path dependence, increasing returns, and the study of politics. Am Polit Sci Rev 94(2):251–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. PRC (1988) Standardization Law of the People’s Republic of China. Adopted at the Fifth Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People’s Congress on December 29, 1988, promulgated by Order No.11 of the President of the People’s Republic of China on December 29, 1988, and effective as of April 1, 1989Google Scholar
  98. PRC (1990) Regulations for the Implementation Of The Standardization Law Of the People’s Republic Of China. Promulgated by Decree No. 53 of the State Council of the People's Republic of China on April 6, 1990 and effective as of the date of promulgation. http://english.cnca.gov.cn/lawr/201512/t20151208_42262.shtml
  99. PRC (2003a) 《无公害农产品认证程序》(2003) Procedures for the Certification of Pollution-Free Agricultural Product (2003). http://en.pkulaw.cn/display.aspx?cgid=45596&lib=law
  100. PRC (2003b) Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Certification and Accreditation. Adopted at the 18th executive meeting of the State Council on August 20, 2003, promulgated by Decree No. 390 of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China on September 3, 2003, and effective as of November 1, 2003. Article 9. https://www.cnas.org.cn/english/lawsandregulations/images/2012/12/14/245C2A684D2779E04D3DBF9E9A7A8FAB.pdf
  101. PRC (2004) Decision of the State Council about further strengthening food safety, issued on 1 September 2004, effective date 1 September 2004, No. 23 [2004] of the State CouncilGoogle Scholar
  102. PRC (2015) Administrative Measures on Certification of Organic Products (2015 Revision). Revised on 25 August 2015 pursuant to the Decision of the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine on Revision of Certain Regulations. 中华人民共和国认证认可条例》Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Certification and Accreditation (2016 Amendment). http://en.pkulaw.cn/display.aspx?cgid=269346&lib=law. 10 October 2017
  103. Regattieri E, Gamberi M, Manzini R (2007) Traceability of food products: general framework and experimental evidence. J Food Eng 81:347–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sanders R (2000) Prospects for sustainable development in the Chinese countryside: the political economy of Chinese ecological agriculture. Ashgate, Aldershot, HantsGoogle Scholar
  105. Schmalzer S (2016) Red revolution, green revolution. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  106. Schmid O (2007) Development of standards for organic farming. In: Lockeretz W (ed) Organic farming: an international history. CABI International, Wallingford, pp 152–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schumilas T (2018) Economic, ecological, and interpersonal dimensions of alternative food networks. In: Scott S, Si ZZ, Schmilas T, Chen AJ (eds) Organic food and farming in China: top-down and bottom-up ecological initiatives. Routledge, London/New York, pp 109–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Scorzon A, Van der Meulen B, Jiao L (2014) Organics in Chinese food law. Eur Food Feed Law Rev 9(3):179–186Google Scholar
  109. Scott C (2004) Regulation in the age of governance: the rise of the post-regulatory state. In: Jordana J, Levi-Faur D (eds) The politics of regulation: institutions and regulatory reforms for the age of governance. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, pp 145–174Google Scholar
  110. Scott J (2009) The WTO agreement on sanitary and phytosanitary measures: a commentary. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  111. Scott S, Schumilas T, Si ZZ, Chen AJ (2013) Contradictions in state- and civil society-driven developments in China’s ecological agriculture sector. Food Policy 45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2013.08.002
  112. Scott S, Si ZZ, Schumilas T, Chen AJ (2018a) Contradictions in state- and civil society-driven developments in China’s ecological agriculture sector. Food Policy 45:158–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Scott, S, Si, ZZ, Schmilas, T, Chen, AJ. (2018b) Organic food and farming in China: top-down and bottom-up ecological initiatives, Routledge, London/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shi Y, Cheng CW, Lei P, Wen TJ, Merrifield C (2011) Safe food, reen food, good food: Chinese community supported agriculture and the rising middle class. Int J Agric Sustain 9(4):551–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Si ZZ (2018) Farmers’ markets as contested spaces: case study of the Beijing organic farmers’ market. In: Scott S, Si ZZ, Schmilas T, Chen AJ (eds) Organic food and farming in China: top-down and bottom-up ecological initiatives. Routledge, London/New York, pp 128–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Si ZZ, Scott S (2016) The convergence of alternative food networks within “rural development” initiatives: the case of the New Rural Reconstruction Movement in China. Local Environ 21(9):1082–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Si ZZ, Schumilas T, Scott S (2018) Bottom-up initiatives: the emergence of “alternative” food networks. In: Scott S, Si ZZ, Schmilas T, Chen AJ (eds) Organic food and farming in China: top-down and bottom-up ecological initiatives. Routledge, London/New York, pp 81–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Skal Biocontrol (2019) Website: https://www.skal.nl/home-en-gb/about-skal/. Accessed 29 May 2019
  119. Smythe E (2009) In whose interests? Transparency and accountability in the global governance of food: agribusiness, the codex alimentarius, and the World Trade Organization. In: Clapp J, Fuchs D (eds) Corporate power in global agrifood governance. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 92–123Google Scholar
  120. Snyder F (1993) The effectiveness of European community law: institutions, processes, rules and techniques. Mod Law Rev 56(1):19–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Snyder F (1994) Soft law and institutional practice in the European community. In: Martin S (ed) The construction of Europe: essays in Honour of Emile Noel. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 197–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Snyder F (1999) Governing economic globalisation: European Union law and global economic networks. Eur Law J 5(4):334–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Snyder F (2001) The origins of the ‘Nonmarket economy’: ideas, pluralism and power in EC antidumping law about China. Eur Law J 7(4):369–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Snyder F (2006) Toward an international law for adequate food. In: Mahiou A, Snyder F (eds) La sécurité alimentaire/Food Security and Food Safety. E.J. Brill for The Hague Academy of International Law, Leiden, pp 103–199Google Scholar
  125. Snyder F (2015) No country is an island in regulating food safety: how the WTO monitors China’s food safety laws through the trade policy review mechanism. J Integr Agric 14:11, Special Issue: Food Safety in China, 2142–2156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Snyder, F. (2010). The EU, the WTO and China. Hart Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  127. Snyder F (2016) Food safety law in China: making transnatonal law. E.J. Brill for the Xiamen Academy of International Law, LeidenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Snyder F (2019) The EU, China and product standards. In: Bersick S, Brown K, Cottey A, Gottwald J-C, Shen W (eds) Routledge handbook on EU-China relations. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  129. Snyder F, Kim YS (2018) China’s 2015 food safety law: crossing the river, but feeling the stones and avoiding low-hanging branches? Chin J Comp Law 6(1):1–49.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cjcl/cxy004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Snyder F, Ni L (2017a) A tale of eight pesticides: risk regulation and public health in China. Eur J Risk Regul 8(3):469–505.  https://doi.org/10.1017/err.2017.38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Snyder F, Ni L (2017b) Chinese apples and the emerging world food trade order: food safety, international trade and regulatory collaboration between China and the European Union. Chin J Comp Law 5(2):253–307.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cjcl/cxx014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Snyder F, Ni L (2019) Three faces of China-EU cooperation: from the Beijing Olympics to one belt, one road. In: Canelas de Castro P (ed) The European Union at 60: what future for the EU? University of Macau Press, MacauGoogle Scholar
  133. Snyder F, Ni L, Hu ZK (2019) Transnational law in the Pacific century: mapping pesticide regulation in China. In: Zumbansen P (ed) The many lives of transnational law: critical engagements with Jessup’s Bold proposal. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  134. Sousa Santos B (1995) Toward a new common sense. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  135. Sternfeld E (2009) Organic food “Made in China”. EU-China Civil Society Forum, Hintergrundfinformatienen 10/2009 – 11. August 2009. www.eu-china.net
  136. Sun J (2018) Review of the “Law of the People’s Republic of China on quality and safety of agricultural products”. J Resour Ecol 9(1):106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Teubner G (ed) (1997) Global law without a state. Dartmouth, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  138. Thiers P (2005) Using global organic markets to pay for ecologically based agricultural development in China. Agric Hum Values 22:3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Thiers P (2006) China and global organic food standards: sovereignty bargains and domestic politics. In: Bingen J, Busch L (eds) Agricultural standards: the shape of the global food and fibre system. Springer, New York, pp 193–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Thiers P (2009) Stretching away from the state: NGO emergence and dual identity in a Chinese government institution. In: Hasmuth R, Hsu J (eds) China in an era of transition: understanding contemporary state and society actors. Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp 145–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Tian F (2018) An information system for food safety monitoring in supply chains based on HACCP, blockchain and internet of things. Doctoral thesis, WU Vienna University of Economics and BusinessGoogle Scholar
  142. Trubek D, Dezlay Y, Buchanan R, Davis JR (1994) Global restructuring and the law: studies of the internationalization of legal fields and the creation of transnational arenas (with Yves Dezalay, Ruth Buchanan, and John R. Davis). Case West Law Rev 44:407–498Google Scholar
  143. Tsai W-H (2016) Delicacies for a privileged class in a risk society: the Chinese Communist Party’s special supplies food system. Issues Stud 52:2.  https://doi.org/10.1142/S1013251116500053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Unger J (ed) (2008) Associations and the Chinese state: contested spaces. M.E. Sharpe, LondonGoogle Scholar
  145. van der Heijden J (2017) Darker sides of intermediation: target-oriented and self-interested intermediaries in the regulatory governance of buildings. Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci 670(1):207–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Vogt G (2007) The origins of organic farming. In: Lockeretz W (ed) Organic farming: an international history. CABI International, Wallingford, pp 9–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. von Benda-Beckmann F (1988) Comment on Merry. Law Soc Rev 22(5):897–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. von Benda-Beckmann F, von Benda-Beckmann K (2008) Dynamics of plural legal orders. Lit Verlag, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  149. Wang R, Si Z, Ng C, Scott S (2015) The transformation of trust in China’s alternative food networks: disruption, reconstruction, and development. Ecol Soc 20(2):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wen T, Lau K, Cheng C, He H, Qiu J (2012) Ecological civilisation, indigenous culture, and rural reconstruction inChina. Mon Rev 63(9):29–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. WHO and FAO (2007) World Health Organization and UN Food and Agricultural Organization, Organically Produced Foods, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Commission, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, 3rd ednGoogle Scholar
  152. Wikipedia (2019) Organic Crop Improvement Association. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_Crop_Improvement_Association. Accessed 13
  153. Willer H, Lernoud J (eds) (2019) The world of organic agriculture: statistics and emerging trends 2019. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Frick, and IFOAM – Organics International, BonnGoogle Scholar
  154. Wu Q (2013) Competition laws, globalization and legal pluralism: China’s experience. Hart, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  155. Wu L, Liu PP, Lv YX, Cheng XJ, Tsai F-S (2018) Social co-governance for food safety risks. Sustainability 10(4246):1–14.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Yan YX (2012) Food safety and social risk in China. J Asian Stud 71(3):705–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Yang DL (2005) Remaking the Chinese leviathan. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  158. Yasuda JK (2018) On feeding the masses: an anatomy of regulatory failure in China. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  159. Zhang M, Qiao H, Wang X, Pu M-Z, Yu Z-J, Zheng FT (2015) The third-party regulation on food safety in China: a review. J Integr Agric 14(11):2176–2188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(15)61114-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zhou G (2017) The regulatory regime of food safety in China: governance and segmentation. Palgrave Macmillan, Springer, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Zhu S (2007) Political parties in China’s judiciary. Duke J Comp Int Law 17:533–560Google Scholar
  162. Zhu Y (2008) An integrated approach to the translation of special terms with special reference to the Chinese term lüse shipin (green food). Transl J 12(1)Google Scholar
  163. Zumbansen P (ed) (2019) The many lives of transnational law: critical engagements with Jessup’s Bold proposal. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francis Snyder
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Peking University School of Transnational LawPeking University Shenzhen Graduate SchoolShenzhenChina
  2. 2.College of EuropeBrugesBelgium

Personalised recommendations