Advertisement

Learning Styles of Mainland Chinese

  • Kumaran Rajaram
Chapter
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

The chapter presents the academic evidence addressing the educational perspectives in relation to mainland Chinese students. It focuses on five key aspects—namely, (a) evaluating principles of learning styles which contributes to optimal learning effectiveness and perceived learning effectiveness; (b) the stereotypes of the learning styles of mainland Chinese students; (c) changes and shifts in Chinese culture of learning; (d) practical challenges and implications in the pursuit of Western-based education and (e) the deliverables of Western-based education for mainland Chinese students and the different types of instructional approaches.

This chapter first presents the general context of the education system in Singapore, thereafter addressing the learning style theories, followed by explicitly identifying the learning behavioural styles of mainland Chinese students. The individual aspects of the mainland Chinese students’ learning styles are further examined: (a) emphasis on the perception of the concrete; (b) practicality as a central focus; (c) rote versus repetition style of learning; (d) classroom behaviour; (e) medium of instruction and (f) analysis and identification of gaps in current knowledge. Next, the evolving changes in the Chinese culture of learning are investigated. Thereupon, the challenges and adaptability issues on the pursuit of a Western-based education versus the Chinese-oriented education are discussed. The discussion is further extended to examine the applicability of Western concepts to China. Vital aspects related to the learning styles of mainland Chinese students, namely, (a) students’ participation in classroom activities; (b) use of typical management training techniques and (c) teacher-student relationship and active versus passive teaching approaches, are also explored and debated. In this chapter the two key theoretical frameworks for the context of learning effectiveness and instructional approaches—namely, (a) Morey and Frangioso’s (1988) six effective learning principles and (b) four active (A-like) and six passive (P-like) instructional techniques identified by Rodrigues (2004)—are discussed. This primes to the next section on the identification of the gaps in current knowledge. Lastly, the key pointers discussed are reinforced.

References

  1. Atkins, T. V., & Ashcroft, L. (2004). Information skills of undergraduate business students: A comparison of UK and international students. Library Management, 25(1/2), 39–55.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, D. (1997). A critical approach to critical thinking in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 31(1), 9–37.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3587975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ball, M. A., & Mahony, M. (1987). Foreign students, libraries, and culture. College and Research Libraries, 48(2), 160–166.Google Scholar
  4. Barmeyer, C. I. (2004). Learning styles and their impact on cross-cultural training: An international comparison in France, Germany, and Quebec. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28(6), 577–594.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.01.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron, S., & Strout-Dapaz, A. (2001). Communicating with and empowering international students with a library skills set. Reference Services Review, 29(4), 314–326.  https://doi.org/10.1108/00907320110408447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berry, J. W. (1976). Human ecology and cognitive style: Comparative studies in cultural and psychological adaptation (Vol. 3). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Biederman, I., & Tsao, Y. C. (1979). On processing Chinese ideographs and English words: Some implications from Stroop-test results. Cognitive Psychology, 11(2), 125–132.Google Scholar
  8. Biggs, J. (1991). Approaches to learning in secondary and tertiary students in Hong Kong: Some comparative studies. Educational Research Journal, 6, 27–39.Google Scholar
  9. Biggs, J. (1994). Asian learners through Western eyes: An astigmatic paradox. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Vocational Educational Research, 2(2), 40–63.Google Scholar
  10. Biggs, J. (1996). Western misperceptions of the Confucian heritage learning culture. In D. Watkins & J. Biggs (Eds.), The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological, and contextual influences (pp. 45–67). Hong Kong, China: Comparative Education Research Centre.Google Scholar
  11. Biggs, J. B., & Watkins, D. (2001a). Insights into teaching the Chinese learner. In D. Watkin & J. B. Biggs (Eds.), Teaching the Chinese learner: Psychological and pedagogical perspectives (pp. 277–300). Hong Kong: Comparative Education and Research Centre and Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  12. Biggs, J. B., & Watkins, D. (2001b). The paradox of the Chinese learner and beyond. In D. Watkins & J. B. Biggs (Eds.), Teaching the Chinese learner: Psychological and pedagogical perspectives (pp. 3–23). Hong Kong: Comparative Education and Research Centre and Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  13. Bohlin, N., & Brenner, P. (1996). The learning organization journey: Assessing and valuing progress. The Systems Thinker, 7(5), 1–5.Google Scholar
  14. Boisot, M., & Child, J. (1999). Organizations as adaptive systems in complex environments: The case of China. Organization Science, 10(3), 237–252.Google Scholar
  15. Bond, M. H. (1991). Beyond the Chinese face: Insights from psychology. USA: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bond, M. H. (1992). Beyond the Chinese face: Insights from psychology. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bond, M. H., & Hwang, K.-K. (1986). The social psychology of Chinese people. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The psychology of the Chinese people (pp. 213–266). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Bradley, D., & Bradley, M. (1984). Problems of Asian students in Australia: Language, culture and education. Canberra: AGPS.Google Scholar
  19. Bu, N., & Mitchell, V. F. (1992). Developing the PRC’s managers: How can western experts become more helpful? Journal of Management Development, 11(2), 42–53.  https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000001394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cagiltay, K., & Bichelmeyer, B. (2000). Differences in learning styles in different cultures: A qualitative study. Cognitive Style, 23, 1–23.Google Scholar
  21. Carson, J. (1992). Becoming biliterate: First language influences. Journal of Second Language Writing, 1(1), 37–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/1060-3743(92)90019-LCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cassidy, S. (2004). Learning styles: An overview of theories, models and measures. Educational Psychology, 24(4), 419–444.Google Scholar
  23. Chalmers, D., & Volet, S. (1997). Common misconceptions from South-East Asia studying in Australia. Higher Education Research & Development, 16(1), 87–99.Google Scholar
  24. Chan, J. (1976). Is Raven’s Progressive Matrices test culture-free or culture-fair? Some research findings in Hong Kong context. In Third international association for cross-cultural psychology congress, Tilburg.Google Scholar
  25. Chan, S. (1991). Asian Americans: An interpretative history. Boston: Twayne.Google Scholar
  26. Chan, S. (1999). The Chinese learner: A question of style. Education & Training, 41(6/7), 294–304.  https://doi.org/10.1108/00400919910285345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chan, D., & Drover, G. (1997). Teaching and learning for overseas students: The Hong Kong connection. In D. McNamara & R. Harris (Eds.), Overseas students in higher education (Issues in teaching and learning) (pp. 46–61). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Chan, C. K. K., & Rao, N. (2009). Revisiting the Chinese learner: Changing education, changing context. Hong Kong: Springer and the Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  29. Chen, M. L. (2009). Influence of grade level on perceptual learning style preferences and language learning strategies of Taiwanese English as a Foreign Language Learners. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 304–308.Google Scholar
  30. Chow, I. H. S. (1995). Management education in Hong Kong: Needs and challenges, International. Journal of Educational Management, 9, 10–15.Google Scholar
  31. Chris, S. H., & Arthur, E. P. (2014). Chinese students’ participation: The effect of cultural factors. Education + Training, 56(5), 430–446.Google Scholar
  32. Civil Service College. (2017). Singapore four principles of governance. Retrieved September 25, 2017, from https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Ethos/Ethos%20November%202004/Pages/Singapore%20Four%20Principles%20Of%20Governance.aspx
  33. Clark, R., & Gieve, S. N. (2006). On the discursive construction of ‘the Chinese learner’. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 19(1), 54–73.Google Scholar
  34. Coffield, F., et al. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning. Learning and Skills Research Centre. http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf
  35. Cortazzi, M., & Jin, L. (1996). Cultures of learning: Language classrooms in China. In H. Coleman (Ed.), Society and the language classroom (pp. 169–206). Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  36. Cortazzi, M., & Jin, L. (2001). Large classes in China ‘good’ teachers and interaction. In J. Biggs & D. Watkins (Eds.), Teaching the Chinese learner (pp. 115–134). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.Google Scholar
  37. Coverdale-Jones, T., & Rastall, P. (Eds.). (2009). Internationalising the University: The Chinese context. Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  38. Daniel, H. K. (1993). The LMK between individual and organisational Learning, Sloan Management Review AssociationGoogle Scholar
  39. Daquila, T. C. (2013). Internationalizing higher education in Singapore: Government policies and the NUS experience. Journal of Studies in International Education, 17(5), 629–647.Google Scholar
  40. De Vita, G. (2002). Cultural equivalence in the assessment of home and international business management students: A UK exploratory study. Studies in Higher Education, 27(2), 221–231.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070220120038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Durkin, K. (2011). Adapting to Western norms of critical argumentation and debate. In L. Jin & M. Cortazzi (Eds.), Researching Chinese learners: Skills, perceptions, and intercultural adaptations (pp. 274–291). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  42. Edwards, D. (1982). Project marking: Some problems and issues. Teaching at a Distance, 21, 28–34.Google Scholar
  43. Ehrman, M., & Oxford, R. (1990). Adult language learning styles and strategies in an intensive training setting. Modern Language Journal, 74(3), 311–327.Google Scholar
  44. Ehrman, M. E., Leaver, B. L., & Oxford, R. L. (2003). A brief overview of individual differences in second language learning 1. System, 31(3), 313–330.Google Scholar
  45. Felder, R. M., & Silverman, L. K. (1998). Learning and teaching styles in engineering education. Engineering Education, 78(7), 674–681.Google Scholar
  46. Ford, N. (2004). Towards a model of learning for educational informatics. Journal of documentation, 60(2), 183–225.Google Scholar
  47. Fox, H. (1994). Listening to the world. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English.Google Scholar
  48. Frazee, V. (1996). Keeping up on Chinese culture. Personnel Journal, 1(1), 16.Google Scholar
  49. Freedman, M. (1979). The study of Chinese society: Essays by Maurice Freedman, selected and introduced by G. William Skinner. Sanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Garcha, R., & Russell, P. Y. (1993). Bibliographic instruction for international students in academic libraries. Library Review, 42(6), 14–22.  https://doi.org/10.1108/00242539310045426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Geake, J., & Maingard, C. (1999). NESB postgraduate students at a new university: Plus ca change plus c’est la meme chose. In Y. Ryan & O. Zuber-Skerritt (Eds.), Supervising postgraduates from non-English speaking backgrounds (pp. 48–60). Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Gibb, A. A. (1996). Entrepreneurship and small business management: Can we afford to neglect them in the twenty-first century business school? British Journal of management, 7(4), 309–321.Google Scholar
  53. Gu, M. (2001). Education in China and abroad: Perspectives from a lifetime in comparative education. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Centre.Google Scholar
  54. Hellmundt, S. (2001, December). The Internationalisation of the Tertiary Curriculum: Strategies to Link Critical Theory and Intercultural Understandings. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Fremantle.Google Scholar
  55. Hess, R., & Azuma, H. (1991). Cultural support for schooling: Contrasts between Japan and the United States. Educational Researcher, 20(9), 2–8.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X020009002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ho, D. Y. F. (1986). Chinese patterns of socialization: A critical review. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The psychology of the Chinese people (pp. 1–35). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  58. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  59. Hofstede, G., & Bond, M. H. (1988). The Confucian connection: From cultural roots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics, 16(4), 5–21.Google Scholar
  60. Holland, R. P. (1989). Learner characteristics and learner performance: Implications for instructional placement decision. In B. J. R. Shade (Ed.), Culture, style and the educative process (pp. 167–183). Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  61. Hoosain, R., & Osgood, C. E. (1983). Processing times for English and Chinese words. Perception & Psychophysics, 34(6), 573–577.Google Scholar
  62. Hu, G. W. (2003). English language teaching in China: Regional differences and contributing factors. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 24(4), 290–318.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630308666503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hu, C., Chand, P., & Evans, E. (2013). The effect of national culture, acculturation, and education on accounting judgments: A comparative study of Australian and Chinese culture. Journal of International Accounting Research, 12(2), 51–77.Google Scholar
  64. Huang, F., Hoi, C. K. W., & Teo, T. (2018). The influence of learning style on English learning achievement among undergraduates in mainland China. Journal of Psycholinguistic.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-018-9578-3
  65. Jarrah, F. (1998). New courses will target transition to university. China Morning Post, 23 April, 28.Google Scholar
  66. Jaw, B. S., Ling, Y. H., Yu-Ping Wang, C., & Chang, W. C. (2007). The impact of culture on Chinese employees’ work values. Personnel Review, 36(1), 128–144.Google Scholar
  67. Jin, L., & Cortazzi, M. (1998). Dimensions of dialogue: Large classes in China. International Journal of Educational Research, 29, 739–761.Google Scholar
  68. Jones, J. (1999). From silence to talk: Cross cultural ideas on students’ participation in academic group discussion. English for Specific Purposes, 18(3), 243–259.Google Scholar
  69. Kahn, R. L. (1979). Aging and social support. Aging from birth to death: Interdisciplinary perspectives, 1, 77–91.Google Scholar
  70. Kamhi-Stein, L. D. (1998). Profiles of underprepared second-language readers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 41(8), 610–619.Google Scholar
  71. Kember, D. (1996). The intention to both memorise and understand: Another approach to learning? Higher Education, 31, 341–354.Google Scholar
  72. Kember, D. (2016). Understanding and teaching the Chinese learner: Resolving the paradox of the Chinese learner. In The psychology of Asian learners (pp. 173–187). Singapore: Springer.Google Scholar
  73. Kember, D., & Gow, L. (1990). Cultural specificity of approaches to study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 60(3), 356–363.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1990.tb00952.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kirkpatrick, A. 2004. “Some thoughts on the Chinese learner and the teaching of writing.Google Scholar
  75. Kirkbride, P. S., & Tang, S. F. (1992). Management development in the Nanyang Chinese societies of south-east Asia. Journal of Management Development, 11(2), 54–66.Google Scholar
  76. Kolb, D. A., & Fry, R. (1975). Toward an applied theory of experiential learning. In C. Cooper (Ed.), Studies of Group Process (pp. 33–57). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  77. Kumaravadivelu, B. (2003). Problematizing culture stereotypes in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 709–716.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3588219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lacina, J. G. (2002). Preparing international students for a successful social experience in higher education. New Directions for Higher Education, 117, 21–28.  https://doi.org/10.1002/he.43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ladd, P. D., & Ruby Jr., R. (1999). Learning style and adjustment issues of international students. Journal of Education in Business, 74(6), 363–367.Google Scholar
  80. Lau, S. K. (1982). Society and politics in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Lee, W. O. (1996). The cultural context for Chinese learners: Conceptions of learning in the Confucian tradition. The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological and contextual influences, 34, 63–67.Google Scholar
  82. Leung, D. Y. P., Ginns, P., & Kember, D. (2008). Examining the cultural specificity of approaches to learning in universities in Hong Kong and Sydney. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39(3), 251–266.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022107313905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lin, Y. (1977). My country and my people. Hong Kong: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  84. Littlewood, W. (2009). Participation-based pedagogy: How congruent is it with Chinese cultures of learning? In P. Cheng & J. X. Yan (Eds.), Cultural identity and language anxiety (pp. 179–202). Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Liu, I. M. (1986a). Chinese cognition. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The psychology of the Chinese people (pp. 73–105). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Liu, I. M. (1986b). Chinese cognition. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The psychology of the Chinese people. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Liu, S. (2006). Developing China’s future managers: Learning from the West? Education & Training, 48(1), 6–14.Google Scholar
  88. Louie, K. (2005). Gathering cultural knowledge: Useful or use with care? In J. Carroll & J. Ryan (Eds.), Teaching international students: Improving learning for all (pp. 17–25). London: Routledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  89. Low, L. (2001). The Singapore developmental state in the new economy and polity. The Pacific Review, 14(3), 411–441.Google Scholar
  90. Malhotra, N. K., & McCort, J. D. (2001). A cross-cultural comparison of behavioral intention models-Theoretical consideration and an empirical investigation. International Marketing Review, 18(3), 235–269.Google Scholar
  91. Martinsons, M. G., & Martinsons, A. B. (1996). Conquering cultural constraints to cultivate Chinese management creativity and innovation. Journal of Management Development, 15(9), 18–35.Google Scholar
  92. Marton, F., Dall’Alba, G., & Tse, L. K. (1996). Memorizing and understanding: The keys to the paradox? In D. A. Watkins & J. B. Biggs (Eds.), The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological and contextual influences (pp. 69–83). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre and The Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  93. McKay, J., & Kember, D. (1997). Spoon feeding leads to regurgitation: A better diet can result in more digestible learning outcomes. Higher Education Research & Development, 16(1), 55–67.Google Scholar
  94. McMahon, P. (2011). Chinese voices: Chinese learners and their experiences of living and studying in the United Kingdom. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 33(4), 401–414.Google Scholar
  95. McNaught, C. (2012). SOTL at cultural interfaces: Exploring nuance in learning designs at a Chinese university. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 6(2), 1–7.Google Scholar
  96. Ministry of Education. (2017, March 7). Many paths, new possibilities: Nurturing our students’ aptitudes & enhancing their access to opportunities. Retrieved from https://www.moe.gov.sg/news/press-releases/many-paths%2D%2Dnew-possibilities%2D%2Dnurturing-our-students-aptitudes-and-enhancing-their-access-to-opportunities
  97. Ministry of Trade and Industry Singapore. (1986, February). Report of the economic committee. Retrieved from https://www.mti.gov.sg/ResearchRoom/Documents/app.mti.gov.sg/data/pages/885/doc/econ.pdf
  98. Ministry of Trade and Industry Singapore. (1991, December 1). The strategic economic plan: Towards a developed nation. Retrieved from https://www.mti.gov.sg/ResearchRoom/Documents/app.mti.gov.sg/data/pages/885/doc/NWS_plan.pdf
  99. Morey, D., & Frangioso, T. (1998). Aligning an organization for learning – The six principles of effective learning. Journal of Knowledge Management, 1(4), 308–214.Google Scholar
  100. Nakamura, H. (1964). Ways of thinking of Eastern people. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  101. Naserieh, F., & Sarab, M. R. A. (2013). Perceptual learning style preferences among Iranian graduate students. System, 41(1), 122–133.Google Scholar
  102. Natowitz, A. (1995). International students in US academic libraries: Recent concerns and trends. Research Strategies, 13(1), 4–16.Google Scholar
  103. Nelson, G. (1995). Cultural differences in learning styles. In J. Reid (Ed.), Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom (pp. 3–18). New York: Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar
  104. Newell, S. (1999). The transfer of management knowledge to China: Building learning communities rather than translating Western textbooks? Education + Training, 41(6/7), 286–294.Google Scholar
  105. Ninnes, P., Aitchison, C., & Kalos, S. (1999). Challenges to stereotypes of international students’ prior educational experience: Undergraduate education in India. Higher Education, Research and Development, 18(3), 323–342.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0729436990180304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Northrop, F. S. C. (1946). The meeting of east and west. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  107. O’Donoghue, T. (1996). Malaysian Chinese students’ perceptions of what is necessary for their academic success in Australia: A case study at one university. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 20(2), 67–80.Google Scholar
  108. Oxford, R. (1995). A cross cultural view of learning styles. Language Teaching, 28, 201–215.Google Scholar
  109. Oxford, R. L. (2003). Language learning styles and strategies: An overview. Retrieved November, 2015, from http://web.ntpu.edu.tw/~language/workshop/read2.pdf
  110. Oxford, R. L., & Anderson, N. (1995). A cross-cultural view of learning styles. Language Teaching, 28(4), 201–215.Google Scholar
  111. Pun, A. S. L. (1989a). Developing managers internationally: Culture free or culture bound. Symposium presentation at the Conference on International Personnel and Human Resource Management, Hong Kong, 13 December.Google Scholar
  112. Pun, A. S. L. (1989b). Action learning in the Chinese culture: Possibility or pitfall. In Manchester international human resource development conference, Manchester.Google Scholar
  113. Rajaram, K. (2010). Culture Clash: Teaching western-based business education to mainland Chinese students in Singapore. PhD thesis, University of South Australia.Google Scholar
  114. Rajaram, K. (2013). Followers of Confucianism or a New Generation? Learning culture of mainland Chinese: In pursuit of western based business education away from mainland China. International Journal of Teaching & Learning in Higher Education, 25(3), 369–377.Google Scholar
  115. Rajaram, K., & Bordia, S. (2011). Culture Clash: Teaching Western-based management education to mainland Chinese students in Singapore. Journal of International Education in Business, 4(1), 63–83.Google Scholar
  116. Rajaram, K., & Bordia, S. (2013). East versus west: Effectiveness of knowledge acquisition and impact of cultural dislocation issues for mainland Chinese students across ten commonly used instructional techniques. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 7(1), 1–21.Google Scholar
  117. Rajaram, K., & Collins, J. B. (2013). Qualitative identification of learning effectiveness indicators among mainland Chinese students in culturally dislocated study environments. Journal of International Education in Business, 6(2), 179–199.Google Scholar
  118. Redding, S. G. (1980). Management education for Orientals. In B. Garrat & J. Stopford (Eds.), Breaking down barriers: Practice and priorities for international management education. Farnborough: Westmead.Google Scholar
  119. Redding, G. (1990). The spirit of Chinese capitalism. New York: Walter de Guyter.Google Scholar
  120. Redding, S. G. (1993). The Chinese family business. In The spirit of Chinese capitalism (pp. 143–181). New York: Walter de Guyter.Google Scholar
  121. Reid, J. M. (1987). The learning style preferences of ESL students. TESOL quarterly, 21(1), 87–111.Google Scholar
  122. Richards, N., & Lee Ross, D. (2004). Offshore teaching and learning: An exploratory Singaporean study. International Journal of Educational Management, 18(4), 260–265.Google Scholar
  123. Riding, R. J., & Read, G. (1996). Cognitive style and pupil learning preferences. Educational Psychology, 16(1), 81–106.Google Scholar
  124. Rodrigues, C. A. (2004). The importance level of ten teaching/learning techniques as rated by university business students and instructors. Journal of Management Development, 23(2), 169–182.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02621710410517256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ryan, J. (2000). A guide to teaching international students. Oxford: Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development.Google Scholar
  126. Ryan, J. (2010). “Chinese learners”: Misconceptions and realities. In J. Ryan & G. Slethaug (Eds.), International education and the Chinese learner (pp. 37–56). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Ryan, J., & Louie, K. (2005, November). Dichotomy or complexity: Problematising concepts of scholarship and learning. In 34th Annual philosophy of education society of Australasia conference.Google Scholar
  128. Ryan, J., & Slethaug, G. (2010). International Education and the Chinese Learner (pp. 13–89). Hong Kong: University Press.Google Scholar
  129. Sadeghi, N., Kasim, Z. M., Tan, B. H., & Abdullah, F. S. (2012). Learning styles, personality types and reading comprehension performance. English Language Teaching, 5(4), 116–123.Google Scholar
  130. Salili, F. (1996). Accepting personal responsibility for learning. In D. Watkins & J. Biggs (Eds.), The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological and contextual influences (pp. 85–106). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre and Australian Council of Educational Research.Google Scholar
  131. Samuelowicz, K. (1987). Learning problems of overseas students: Two sides of a story. Higher Education Research and Development, 6, 121–134.Google Scholar
  132. Saravanamuthu, K., & Yap, C. (2014). Pedagogy to empower Chinese Learners to adapt to western learning circumstances: A longitudinal case-study. Cambridge Journal of Education, 44(3), 361–384.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2014.914154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Schermerhorn, J. R. (1987). Organizational features of Chinese industrial enterprise: Paradoxes of stability in times of change. The Academy of Management Executive, 1(4), 345–349.Google Scholar
  134. Selvarajah, C. (2006). Cross-Cultural study of Asian and European student perception: The need to understand the changing educational environment in New Zealand. Cross-cultural management: An International Journal, 13(2), 142–155.Google Scholar
  135. Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline. The Art of Practice of the Learning Organization, Doubleday.Google Scholar
  136. Shade, B. J. (1989a). Culture and learning style within the Afro-American community. In Culture, style and the educative process (pp. 16–32). Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  137. Shade, B. J. (1989b). Culture: The key to adaptation. In B. J. R. Shade (Ed.), Culture, style and the educative process (pp. 9–15). Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.Google Scholar
  138. Shi, L. (2006). The successors to Confucianism or a new generation? A questionnaire study on Chinese students’ culture of learning English’. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 19(1), 122–147.Google Scholar
  139. SkillsFuture Singapore and Workforce Singapore. (2017, November 9). Retrieved from http://www.ssg-wsg.gov.sg/about.html?_ga=2.63711594.414705368.1498703964-535199895.1498703964
  140. Slethaug, G. (2010). Something happened while nobody was looking: The growth of international education and the Chinese learner. In International education and the Chinese learner (pp. 15–36). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  141. Sun, P. P., & Teng, L. S. (2017). Profiling perceptual learning styles of Chinese as a second language learners in university settings. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 46, 1529–1548.Google Scholar
  142. Tan, D., & Akhtar, S. (1998). Organizational commitment and experienced burnout: An exploratory study from a Chinese cultural perspective. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 6(4), 310–333.Google Scholar
  143. Tian, X., & Qian, D. (2014). Online learning and Chinese student: Still searching for the right blend. Currents in Teaching & Learning, 6(2), 4–16.Google Scholar
  144. Triandis, H. C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M. J., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988). Individualism and collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 54(2), 323.Google Scholar
  145. Tse, D. K., Lee, K. H., Vertinsky, I., & Wehrung, D. A. (1988). Does culture matter? A cross-cultural study of executives’ choice, decisiveness, and risk adjustment in international marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 52, 81–95.Google Scholar
  146. Turner, Y. (2006). Chinese students in UK business school: Hearing the student voice in reflective teaching and learning. Higher Education Quarterly, 60, 27–51.Google Scholar
  147. Turner, Y. (2013). Pathologies of silence? Reflecting on international learner identities amidst the classroom chatter. In J. Ryan (Ed.), Cross-cultural teaching and learning for home and international students (pp. 15–26). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  148. Vernon, P. E. (1982). The abilities and achievements of Orientals in North America. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  149. Volt, S., & Ang, G. (1998). Culturally mixed groups on international campuses: An opportunity for inter-cultural learning. Higher Education Research and Development, 17(1), 5–23.Google Scholar
  150. Warner, M. (1991). How Chinese managers learn. Journal of General Management, 16(4), 66–84.Google Scholar
  151. Watkins, D. (2000). Learning and teaching: A cross-cultural perspective. School Leadership and Management, 20(2), 161–173.Google Scholar
  152. Watkins, D. A., & Biggs, J. B. (Eds.). (1996). The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological and contextual influences. Hong Kong/Melbourne: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong/Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  153. Watkins, D., & Biggs, J. B. (2001). The paradox of the Chinese learner and beyond. In D. Watkins & J. B. Biggs (Eds.), Teaching the Chinese learner. CERC: Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  154. Wayman, S. G. (1984). The international student in the academic library. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 9(6), 336–341.Google Scholar
  155. Wen, W. P., & Clement, R. (2003). A Chinese conceptualisation of willingness to communicate in ESL. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 16(1), 18–38.Google Scholar
  156. Wingrove, N. (1993). It’s not always piracy say Hong Kong engineers. Research Technology Management, 6(36), 4–5.Google Scholar
  157. Wintergerst, A. C., DeCapua, A., & Verna, M. A. (2003). Conceptualizing learning style modalities for ESL/EFL students. System, 31(1), 85–106.Google Scholar
  158. Witkin, H. A., & Berry, J. W. (1975). Psychological differentiation in cross-cultural perspective. ETS Research Report Series, 1975(1).Google Scholar
  159. Witkin, H. A., Dyk, R. B., Fattuson, H. F., Goodenough, D. R., & Karp, S. A. (1962). Psychological differentiation: Studies of development. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  160. Witkins, H. A., Moore, C. A., Goodenough, D. R., & Cox, P. W. (1977). Field-dependent and field-independent cognitive styles and their educational implications. Review of Educational Research, 47(1), 1–64.  https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543047001001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wright, G. N., Phillips, L. D., Whalley, P. C., Choo, G. T., Ng, K. O., Tan, I., et al. (1978). Cultural differences in probabilistic thinking. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 9(3), 285–299.Google Scholar
  162. Wu, Q. (2015). Re-examining the “Chinese learner”: A case study of mainland Chinese students’ learning experiences at British Universities. Higher Education, 70(4), 753–766.Google Scholar
  163. Yang, Z. (2009). The effect of mother tongue transfer on English writing. Teaching and Management, 11(3), 16–20.Google Scholar
  164. Yao, X. (2000). An introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  165. Yau, O. (1994). Consumer behavior in China. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  166. Yee, A. (1989). Cross cultural perspectives on higher education in East Asia: Psychological effects upon Asian students. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 10(3), 213–232.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1989.9994375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Yu, H. (2016). Why are they silent?: Unilateralism in the classroom discourse of Chinese higher education (Symposium: Worlds of representation). Society, 53(6), 625–628.Google Scholar
  168. Zhang, Y. L. (2013). Power distance in online learning: Experience of Chinese learners in US higher education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(4), 238–254.Google Scholar
  169. Zhang, J., & Evans, M. S. (2013). An empirical study on the multidimensional learning styles of Chinese EFL students. International Proceedings of Economic Development and Research, 68, 61–69.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kumaran Rajaram
    • 1
  1. 1.Nanyang Business SchoolNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations