Data Collection for Natural Language Processing Systems

  • Patrik HrkútEmail author
  • Štefan TothEmail author
  • Michal ĎuračíkEmail author
  • Matej MeškoEmail author
  • Emil KršákEmail author
  • Miroslava MikušováEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 1178)


Any NLP system needs enough data for training and testing purposes. They can be split into two datasets: correct and incorrect (erroneous) data. Usually, it is not a problem to find and get a set of correct data because the correct texts are available from different sources, although they may also contain some mistakes. On the other hand, it is a hard task to get data containing errors like typos, mistakes and misspellings. This kind of data is usually obtained by a lengthy manual process and it requires annotation by human. One way to get the incorrect dataset faster is to generate it. However, this creates a problem how to generate incorrect texts so that they correspond to real human mistakes. In this paper, we focused on getting the incorrect dataset by help of humans. We created an automated web application (a game) that allows to collect incorrect texts and misspellings from players for texts written in the Slovak language. Based on the obtained data, we built a model of common errors that can be used to generate a large amount of authentic looking erroneous texts.


Data collection Typos Automatic text correction Spelling and typing model Typing game 



This article was created in the framework of the National project IT Academy – Education for the 21st Century, which is supported by the European Social Fund and the European Regional Development Fund in the framework of the Operational Programme Human Resources.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Software Technologies, Faculty of Management Science and InformaticsUniversity of ŽilinaŽilinaSlovakia
  2. 2.Department of Road and Urban Transport, Faculty of Operation and Economics of TransportUniversity of ŽilinaŽilinaSlovakia

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