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Discovery of New Immune Checkpoints: Family Grows Up

  • Xuan KongEmail author
Chapter
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Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1248)

Abstract

The first generation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) including anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 has achieved profound and great success. Till 2019 Q1, there are nine ICIs landing the oncology market: Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4, Bristol-Myers Squibb), Nivolumab (anti-PD-1, Bristol-Myers Squibb), Pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1, Merck), Atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1, Roche/Genentech), Durvalumab (anti-PD-L1, Astra Zeneca), Tremelimumab (anti-CTLA-4, Astra Zeneca), Cemiplimab (anti-PD-1, Sanofi/Regeneron), Toripalimab (anti-PD-1, Junshi), and Sintilimab (anti-PD-1, Innovent), which have covered the majority of hematologic and solid malignancies’ indication. Beyond the considerable benefits for the patients, frustrated boundary still exists: limited response rate in monotherapy in late-stage population, poor effectiveness in neoplasms with immune desert and immune excluded types, and immune-related toxicities, some are life-threatened and with higher incidence in I-O combination regiment. Moreover, clinicians observed some cases switching to progression after achieving partial or complete response, indicating treatment failure or drug resistance. So people begin looking for the next generation of immune checkpoint members.

Keywords

Immune checkpoint inhibitors Receptor identification Ligand screening Cell-based assay T cell inhibition 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bristol Myers Squibb Global Clinical ResearchShanghaiChina

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