Phosphorylation: A Fast Switch For Checkpoint Signaling

  • Yiting Wang
  • Ping Wang
  • Jie XuEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1248)


Checkpoint signaling involves a variety of upstream and downstream factors that participate in the regulation of checkpoint expression, activation, and degradation. During the process, phosphorylation plays a critical role. Phosphorylation is one of the most well-documented post-translational modifications of proteins. Of note, the importance of phosphorylation has been emphasized in aspects of cell activities, including proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation. Here we summarize how phosphorylation of specific molecules affects the immune activities with preference in tumor immunity. Of course, immune checkpoints are given extra attention in this book. There are many common pathways that are involved in signaling of different checkpoints. Some of them are integrated and presented as common activities in the early part of this chapter, especially those associated with PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4, because investigations concerning them are particularly abundant and variant. Their distinct regulation is supplementarily discussed in their respective section. As for checkpoints that are so far not well explored, their related phosphorylation modulations are listed separately in the later part. We hope to provide a clear and systematic view of the phosphorylation-modulated immune signaling.


Phosphorylation Tyrosine kinase PTM Cancer immunity 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of MedicineRenji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital of Tongji University, School of Medicine, School of Life Sciences and TechnologyTongji University Cancer Center, Tongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Zhongshan-Xuhui HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiChina

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