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The Development of Extracellular Vesicle-Integrated Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration

  • Yinghong ZhouEmail author
  • Yin Xiao
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1250)

Abstract

The clinical need for effective bone regeneration remains in huge demands. Although autologous and allogeneic bone grafts are generally considered “gold standard” treatments for bone defects, these approaches may result in various complications. Furthermore, safety considerations of gene- and cell-based therapies require further clarification and approval from regulatory authorities. Therefore, developing new therapeutic biomaterials that can empower endogenous regenerative properties to accelerate bone repair and regeneration is of great significance. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise a heterogeneous population of naturally derived nanoparticles that play a critical role in mediating cell–cell communication. The vast amount of biological processes that EVs are involved in, such as immune modulation, senescence, and angiogenesis, and the versatility of manner in which they can influence the behavior of recipient cells make EVs an interesting source for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Advancement of knowledge in the fields of immunology and cell biology has sparked the exploration of the potential of EVs in the field of regenerative medicine. EVs travel between cells and deliver functional cargoes, such as proteins and RNAs, thereby regulating the recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of recipient cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the pivotal role of EVs in tissue regeneration both in vitro and in vivo. In this chapter, we will outline current knowledge surrounding EVs, summarize their functional roles in bone regenerative medicine, and elaborate on potential application and challenges of EV-integrated biomaterials in bone tissue engineering.

Keywords

Extracellular vesicles Osteoblasts Biomaterials Bone regeneration Osteogenesis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Early Career Fellowship (Grant No. 1105035), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) General Project (Grant No. 31771025), and the NSFC Young Scientists Fund (Grant No. 81700969).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Health and Biomedical InnovationQueensland University of Technology (QUT)BrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Oral Medicine, Guangzhou Institute of Oral DiseaseStomatology Hospital of Guangzhou Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.The Australia-China Centre for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (ACCTERM)Queensland University of Technology (QUT)BrisbaneAustralia

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