An Examination of Entrepreneurial, Professional and Leadership (EPL) Career Aspirations Among Adolescent Youth

  • Bianca Ni Ying Kang
  • Marilyn A. UyEmail author


In this study, we incorporated the Entrepreneurship, Professional, and Leadership (EPL) framework into social cognitive theory in an attempt to better understand adolescent career aspirations. Specifically, we explored how encouragement, as reported by the adolescent and the corresponding parent at Time 1, shaped the respective E, P, and L self-efficacy and resulting E, P, and L career outcome measures (i.e., motivation and intent) three months later at Time 2. Data from 252 students indicated that parental encouragement played a positive role in increasing the adolescent’s career self-efficacy, motivation, and intent, with self-efficacy mediating some of the relationships. We also found gender differences in professional career intent and leadership self-efficacy. Our findings suggest that encouragement from parents is critical in shaping career development of adolescents particularly in the Singapore context. Given the nontrivial parental influence, government initiatives aiming to promote entrepreneurship among adolescents must involve their parents.


Career aspirations Youth Self-efficacy Parental encouragement Motivation 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

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