Open Educational Resources in Turkey

  • Secil TisogluEmail author
  • Engin Kursun
  • Kursat Cagiltay
Part of the Lecture Notes in Educational Technology book series (LNET)


The purpose of this study is to present an Open Educational Resources (OER) landscape to the extent of the development (infrastructure, policy, stakeholders and license), integration (curriculum and teaching methodology and resources) and the impact (outcomes) on educational context where each three section holds their sub-sections to provide a comprehensive picture of the OER movement in Turkey. Through the growing trend of movements related to access to, quality of and equity of education, OERs play an important role to reshape the teaching and learning experiences by transforming education in the world. Therefore, beyond the state of the art of OERs in Turkey, how Turkey contributes to this movement is important to share timely. As beginning with the timeline of the initiatives in Turkey, this chapter comprises of three sections within its sub-sections, extent of development, integration and the impact of OERs on education.


Open Educational Resources (OER) Open access repositories OpenCourseWare (OCW) Policymakers Open education practices 


  1. Al, U., & Madran, O. (2013). An overview to open courseware: An example of the Turkish Academy of Sciences. Bı̇lgı̇ Dünyası, 14(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  2. Aydin, C. H. (2016). Current status of the MOOC movement in the world and reaction of the Turkish higher education institutions. Higher education Online: MOOCs the European way (pp. 1–27).Google Scholar
  3. Aydin, C. H. (2017). Current status of the MOOC movement in the world and reaction of the Turkish Higher Education Institutions. Open Praxis, 9(1), 59–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basar, F. (2015). Açık Erişim Farkındalık ve Memnuniyet Anketi Sonuç Raporu. TUBİTAK ULAKBIM.
  5. Bingöl, I. (2016). Investigation of factors affecting students’ success and completion according to participant types in massive open online courses. Retrieved from National Thesis Database.Google Scholar
  6. Cagiltay, K., Esfer, S., & Celik, B. (2019). Insights into a Nationwide pdMOOC portal. In K. Zhang, C. J. Bonk, T. C. Reeves, & T. H. Reynolds (Eds.), MOOCs and open education in the global south (pp. 130–140). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Cagiltay, K., Kara, E., & Esfer, S. (2016). Türkiye’de Aktif İnternet Kullanım Eğilimleri: 2004–2014 Dönemi. Inet-tr Conference, TED University, Turkey.Google Scholar
  8. Çevik, R., Gürel, N., Gürbüz, T., & Cagiltay, K. (2010, February). Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi Açık Ders Malzemeleri Projesi Deneyimleri, Akademik Bilişim, Muğla, Turkey.Google Scholar
  9. Cimen, E. (2012). Future of resource sharing in Turkey: Can open access be an alternative? Interlending & Document Supply, 40(3), 144–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Department of Strategy Development. (2017). Turkish education system. Retrieved from
  11. Erdem-Aydin, I. (2015). Preferences and willingness for participating MOOCS in Turkish. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 14(2).Google Scholar
  12. Ertürk, K. L. (2008). Türkgiye’de Bilimsel Gelişim: Bir Açık Erişim Modeli Önerisi (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from BBY Thesis Archive, Hacettepe University, Ankara.Google Scholar
  13. European Commission. (2018, April). Commission staff working document Turkey 2018 report. Retrieved from
  14. Higher Education Council of Turkey (YÖK). (2007, February). Turkey’s higher education strategy. Retrieved from
  15. Islim, O. F., & Cagiltay, K. (2016). The impact of OER on instructional effectiveness: A case study. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 12(3), 559–567.Google Scholar
  16. Karasözen, B., Zan, B. U., & Atılgan, D. (2010). Open access in Turkey and comparison with other countries. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 24(2), 235–257.Google Scholar
  17. Köybaşı-Gürel, N., Islim, O. F., Cagiltay, K., & Çevik, R. (2014, April). Use of OpenCourseWare from the viewpoint of Undergraduate students: Case of OER for Physics Laboratory Experiments, OCWC Global 2014: Open Education for a Cultural World, Ljubljana, Slovenia.Google Scholar
  18. Kursun, E. (2011). An investigation of incentives, barriers and values about the OER movement in Turkish universities: Implications for policy framework (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Middle East Technical University E-thesis database, Ankara.Google Scholar
  19. Kursun, E., Cagiltay, K., & Can, G. (2014). An investigation of faculty perspectives on barriers, incentives, and benefits of the OER movement in Turkey. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 15(6).Google Scholar
  20. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2011). The expatriate Turkish citizens. Retrieved from
  21. Ministry of National Education (MEB). (2018). National education statistics, formal education 2017/’18. Retrieved from
  22. OECD. (2007). Giving knowledge for free: The emergence of open educational resources. OECD Publishing. Scholar
  23. OECD. (2017). Access to computers from home.
  24. OLCOS. (2007). The Open eLearning Content Observatory Services project.
  25. Şen-Baysal, A., Çakır, H., & Toplu, H. (2015). The evaluation of open educational resources and the application areas of Turkey. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 29(3), 461–498.Google Scholar
  26. The State Planning Organization (DPT). (2009, March). Bilgi Toplumu Stratejisi Eylem Planı (2006–2010). Değerlendirme Raporu No:3 [Information society strategy action plan (2006–2010). Evaluation Report No: 3]. Retrieved from
  27. Tisoglu, S. (2017). Exploring the use of open educational resources in chemistry laboratory course context: A case study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Middle East Technical University E-thesis database, Ankara.Google Scholar
  28. Tonta, Y. (2008). Open access and institutional repositories: The Turkish landscape. In D. Bayır (Ed.), Turkish libraries in transition: new opportunities and challenges (pp. 27–47). İstanbul: Turkish Librarians’ Association.Google Scholar
  29. Turkstat. (2016a). Number of registered non-formal institutions. Retrieved from
  30. Turkstat. (2016b). Education statistics of schooling rate for children. Retrieved from
  31. Turkstat. (2018). Information society statistics. Retrieved from
  32. TÜBITAK. (2012). Evaluation of developments report from 24th meeting. Retrieved from
  33. TÜBITAK. (2015). Evaluation of developments report from 28th meeting. Retrieved from
  34. TÜBITAK. (2019). TÜBITAK Open science policy. Retrieved from
  35. YÖK. (2014). Yüksek Öğretim Açık Erişim ve Kurumsal Arşiv Politikası. Retrieved fromşiv.pdf/b5332da8-de7b-4730-bca3-a53e546d1c58.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Education FacultyKastamonu UniversityKastamonuTurkey
  2. 2.Kazim Karabekir Education FacultyAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  3. 3.Education FacultyMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations