Local Governance and Access to Urban Services: Political and Social Inclusion in Indonesia

  • Wilmar Salim
  • Martin Drenth
Part of the Advances in 21st Century Human Settlements book series (ACHS)


This study examines relationships between local democracy and the barriers to political and social inclusion of marginalized communities in two cities in Indonesia: Bandung as an example of metropolitan city; and Surakarta to give the perspective of a middle-sized city. Since Indonesia has implemented decentralization reforms, local governments carry out basic service delivery. The central government primarily facilitates local government with funding and policies such as slum improvements and financial support for the poor. A central theme in both central government policies and local government programs is the empowerment of marginalized communities of both their mindset and skills to earn. The community perception of government performance is generally high, except for the aspects of the politicization of public services. A difference between Surakarta and Bandung is that the respondents in Bandung believe the city has high levels of corruption. Generally, the respondents are more satisfied with the service delivery by the different government levels within the city, compared to the provincial and central governments and NGOs. This seems to be related to the higher level of interaction with local institutions and their services that benefit the communities. Both cities have recently implemented services to improve public participation, accountability, transparency and access to urban services. The main factors that led to these innovations are inclusive leadership, a community approach, allowing citizens to voice their aspirations, and the smart city concept. Informing marginalized groups about these services could empower them and contribute to the success of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11.


Slum dwellers Satisfaction Participation Accountability Transparency Innovation factors Barriers to engagement 


  1. Aditama K, Soedwiwahjono N, Putri RA (2016) Pola Perjalanan Penduduk Pinggiran Menuju Kota Surakarta Ditinjau dari Aspek Spasial dan Aspek Aspasial. In: Arsitektura, vol 14, no 1Google Scholar
  2. Antlov H, Ibrahim R, van Tuijl P (2005) NGO governance and accountability in Indonesia; challenges in a newly democratic country. Available at: Accessed at 14 Jan 2018
  3. Asian Development Bank (2012) The neighborhood upgrading and shelter sector project in Indonesia. Accessed 23 Nov 2017
  4. Directorate General of Human Settlements Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing Tentang Program Kota Tanpa Kumuh (KOTAKU). Accessed 10 Oct 2017
  5. Government of Indonesia (2007) Government regulation no. 38/2007 on division of affairs between governments. Republik Indonesia, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  6. Government of Indonesia (2004) Law No. 25 of 2004 on national development planning system Republik Indonesia, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  7. Government of Indonesia (2004) Law No. 33 of 2004 on revenue sharing between the central government and the regional governments. Jakarta: Republik IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  8. Government of Indonesia (2014) Law No. 23 of 2014 on Regional Government. Jakarta: Republik Indonesia, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  9. Jakarta Globe (2017) Indonesia fifth largest country in-terms of twitter users. In: Jakarta Globe. Accessed 10 Oct 2017
  10. Komite Penanggulangan Kemiskinan (2005) Strategi Nasional Pengentasan Kemiskinan [National strategy for poverty alleviation]. Republik Indonesia, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  11. Kota Kita (2017) Improving the transparency, inclusivity and impact of participatory budgeting in Indonesia. Accessed 23 Nov 2017
  12. Minister of Public Works and Housing Republic Indonesia (2016) Regulation of the minister of public works and housing 02/PRT/M/2016 on Increasing the quality of slum housing and slum settlementsGoogle Scholar
  13. Ministry of Social Affairs (2017) Program Keluarga Harapan. Accessed 7 Oct 2017
  14. Nurmatari A (2016) Kota Bandung Raih Penghargaan Tertinggi Sistem SAKIP dari KemenpanRB. In: detikNews. Accessed 23 Nov 2017
  15. Ramdhani LE (2015) Fenomena Kepemimpinan Fenomenal. Jurnal Borneo Administrator 11(3):268–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Salim W, Hudalah D (2020) Urban governance challenges and reforms in Indonesia: towards a new urban agenda. In: Dahiya B, Das A (eds) New urban agenda in Asia-Pacific, Advances in 21st century human settlementsGoogle Scholar
  17. Solo Kota Kita (2012) City and community profile: Solo, Central Java, Indonesia. Kota Kita. Accessed at 14 Jan 2018
  18. Winarko W (2017) Three Indonesian smart cities to look up to. In: The Jakarta Post. Accessed 23 Nov 2017
  19. World Bank (2016a) Indonesia: Improving infrastructure for millions of urban poor. Press release, World Bank. Accessed 10 Oct 2017
  20. World Bank (2016b) Indonesia’s urban story. World Bank. Accessed at 14 Jan 2018
  21. World Bank (2017) Indonesia national slum upgrading project latest implementation status and results report. World Bank. Accessed 23 Nov 2017

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilmar Salim
    • 1
  • Martin Drenth
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Architecture, Planning and Policy DevelopmentInstitut Teknologi BandungBandungIndonesia
  2. 2.Research Center for Infrastructure and Regional Development, Institut Teknologi BandungTangerang SelatanIndonesia

Personalised recommendations