Interference Management in Full-Duplex Cellular Networks

  • Ali Cagatay CirikEmail author
  • Yingbo Hua


Despite its promising potential to double the throughput of a point-to-point radio link, a full-duplex (FD) radio has not been comprehensively analyzed in current cellular systems due to the high levels of interference it generates, which significantly degrades its performance. If not carefully planned and managed, an FD operation might lead to much higher interference in both uplink and downlink than existing half-duplex (HD) operation, limiting its potential gains greatly. This chapter provides an overview of the challenges caused by FD radio links in cellular systems as well as the techniques to overcome those challenges to unlock the full potential of FD wireless communications.


  1. 1.
    IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group. (2015, Feb.). 5G vision and requirements. White paper. [Online]. Available:
  2. 2.
    D. Kim, H. Lee, and D. Hong, “A survey of in-band full-duplex transmission: From the perspective of PHY and MAC layers,” IEEE Commun. Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 2017–2046, Fourthquarter 2015.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Sabharwal, P. Schniter, D. Guo, D. Bliss, S. Rangarajan, and R. Wichman, “In-band full-duplex wireless: Challenges and opportunities,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1637–1652, Sept 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Hua, P. Liang, Y. Ma, A. C. Cirik and Q. Gao, “A method for broadband full-duplex MIMO radio,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 793–796, Dec 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y.-S. Choi and H. Shirani-Mehr, “Simultaneous transmission and reception: algorithm, design and system level performance,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 5992–6014, Dec 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Hua, Y. Ma, A. Gholian, Y. Li, A. Cirik, P. Liang, “Radio self-interference cancellation by transmit beamforming, all-analog cancellation and blind digital tuning,” Signal Processing, vol. 108, pp. 322–340, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Mungara, I. Thibault and A. Lazano, “Full-duplex MIMO in cellular networks: System-level performance,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 3124–3137, May 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Hamza, S. Khalifa, H. Hamza, and K. Elsayed, “A survey on inter-cell interference coordination techniques in OFDMA-based cellular networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1642–1670, March 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y.-S. Choi and H. Shirani-Mehr, “Simultaneous transmission and reception: Algorithm, design and system level performance,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 5992–6010, Dec. 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Yeh, J. Bai, P. Wang, F. Xue, Y.-S. Choi, S. Talwar, S. Chiu, and V. Kristem, Full-Duplex System Design for 5G Access. 5G Networks: Fundamental Requirements, Enabling Technologies, and Operations Management, IEEE Wiley Series, Oct. 2018.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Li, Y. Chen, G. Y. Li and G. Liu, “Full-duplex cellular networks,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 184–191, April 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Han, C. Yang, and P. Chen, “Full duplex-assisted intercell interference cancellation in heterogeneous networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 5218–5234, Dec. 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Goyal, P. Liu, S. Panwar, R. A. DiFazio, R. Yang, and E. Bala, “Full duplex cellular systems: Will doubling interference prevent doubling capacity?” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 121–127, May 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Shirani-Mehr, Y.-S. Choi, R. Yang, and A. Papathanassiou, “Method and apparatus for power control in full-duplex wireless systems with simultaneous transmission reception,” U.S. Patent 8861443B2, Oct. 14, 2014.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    L. Song, Y. Li, and Z. Han, “Resource allocation in full-duplex communications for future wireless networks,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Mag., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 88–96, Aug. 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Nam, C. Joo, and B. S., “Joint subcarrier assignment and power allocation in full-duplex OFDMA networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 3108–3119, June 2015.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Wen and G. Yu, “Time-division cellular networks with full-duplex base stations,” IEEE Commun. Letters, vol 20, no 2, pp. 392–395, Feb. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Yu, D. Wen, and F. Qu, “Joint user scheduling and channel allocation for cellular networks with full duplex base stations,” IET Commun., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 479–486, Mar. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. Karakus and S. N. Diggavi, “Opportunistic scheduling for full-duplex uplink-downlink networks,” IEEE Int. Symp. Inf. Theory (ISIT), pp. 1019–1023, Jun. 2015.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. M. B. da Silva, G. Fodor, and C. Fischione, “Spectral efficient and fair user pairing for full-duplex communication in cellular networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 7578–7593, Nov. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. Di, S. Bayat, L. Song, and Y. Li, “Radio resource allocation for full-duplex OFDMA networks using matching theory,” IEEE Conf. Computer Commun. Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), pp. 197–198, 2014.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Goyal, P. Liu, and S. S. Panwar, “User selection and power allocation in full-duplex multicell networks,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 2408–2422, Mar. 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Yun, “Intra and inter-cell resource management in full-duplex heterogeneous cellular networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 392–405, Feb. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Wang, V. Venkateswaran, and X. Zhang, “Exploring full-duplex gains in multi-cell wireless networks: A spatial stochastic framework,” IEEE Conf. Computer Commun. (INFOCOM), pp. 855–86, Apr. 2015.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Duarte, A. Feki, and S. Valentin, “Inter-user interference coordination in full-duplex systems based on geographical context information,” IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC), pp. 1–7, May 2016.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y. Rong and Y. Hua, “Space-time power scheduling of MIMO links - Fairness and QoS considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Signal Process. Special Issue on MIMO-Optimized Transmission Systems for Delivering Data and Rich Content, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 171–180, April 2008.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y. Rong, Y. Hua, A. Swami, and A. L. Swindlehurst, “Space-time power schedule for distributed MIMO links without instantaneous channel state information at the transmitting nodes,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 686–701, Feb 2008.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y. Rong and Y. Hua, “Optimal power schedule for distributed MIMO links,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 7. no. 8, pp. 2896–2900, August 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. Day, A. Margetts, D. Bliss, and P. Schniter, “Full-duplex bidirectional MIMO: Achievable rates under limited dynamic range,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 60, pp. 3702–3713, July 2012.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    B. Day, A. Margetts, D. Bliss, and P. Schniter, “Full-duplex MIMO relaying: Achievable rates under limited dynamic range,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Commun., vol. 30, pp. 1541–1553, September 2012.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. C. Cirik, Y. Rong, and Y. Hua, “Achievable rates of full-duplex MIMO radios in fast fading channels with imperfect channel estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 62, no. 15, pp. 3874–3886, Aug. 2014.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K. M. Thilina, H. Tabassum, E. Hossain, and D. I. Kim, “Medium access control design for full-duplex wireless systems: Challenges and approaches,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 112–120, May 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Sahai, G. Patel, and A. Sabharwal, “Pushing the limits of full-duplex: Design and real-time implementation,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1107.0607, 2011.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. Y. Kim, O. Mashayekhi, H. Qu, M. Kazandjieva, and P. Levis, “Janus: A novel mac protocol for full duplex radio,” University of Stanford - Computer Science Department, Tech. Rep. CSTR, vol. 2, no. 7, p. 23, 2013.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Goyal, P. Liu, O. Gurbuz, E. Erkip, and S. Panwar, “A distributed MAC protocol for full duplex radio,” Asilomar Conf. Signals, Systems and Computers, pp. 788–792, Nov. 2013.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    W. Choi, H. Lim, and A. Sabharwal, “Power-controlled medium access control protocol for full-duplex WiFi networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 3601–3613, July 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. Y. Chen, T. F. Huang, K. C. J. Lin, Y. W. P. Hong, and A. Sabharwal, “Probabilistic based adaptive full-duplex and half-duplex medium access control,” IEEE Global Commun. Conf. (GLOBECOM), pp. 1–6, Dec 2015.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. H. Chae, S.-W. Jeon and S. H. Lim, “Fundamental limits of spectrum sharing full-duplex multicell networks,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 3048–3061, Nov. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. H. Chae, S. H. Lim, and S. W. Jeon, “Degrees of freedom of full-duplex multiantenna cellular networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 982–995, Feb. 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. A. Jafar and S. Shamai (Shitz), “Degrees of freedom region for the MIMO X channel,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 151–170, Jan. 2008.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    V. R. Cadambe and S. A. Jafar, “Interference alignment and degrees of freedom for the K-user interference channel,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 3425–3441, Aug. 2008.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    C. Suh and D. Tse, “Downlink interference alignment,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 2616–2626, Sep. 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Sahai, S. Diggavi, and A. Sabharwal, “On uplink/downlink full-duplex networks,” Asilomar Conf. Signals, Systems and Computers, pp. 14–18, Nov. 2013.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    A. Sahai, S. Diggavi, and A. Sabharwal, “On degrees-of-freedom of full-duplex uplink/downlink channel,” IEEE Information Theory Workshop (ITW), pp. 1–5, Sept 2013.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    W. Bi, X. Su, L. Xiao, and S. Zhou, “On rate region analysis of full-duplex cellular system with inter-user interference cancellation,” IEEE Int. Conf. Communication Workshop (ICCW), pp. 1166–1171, June 2015.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    W. Bi, X. Su, L. Xiao, and S. Zhou, “Superposition coding based inter-user interference cancellation in full duplex cellular system,” IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), pp. 1–6, April 2016.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    P. Aquilina, A. C. Cirik and T. Ratnarajah, “Weighted sum rate maximization in full-duplex multi-user multi-cell MIMO network,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1590–1608, Apr. 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    A. C. Cirik, “Fairness considerations for full duplex multi-user MIMO systems,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Lett., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 361–364, Aug. 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    A. C. Cirik, S. Biswas, S. Vuppala, and T. Ratnarajah, “Beamforming design for full-duplex MIMO interference channels: QoS and energy-efficiency considerations,”IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 4635–4651, Nov. 2016.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. C. Cirik, M. J. Rahman and L. Lampe, “Robust fairness transceiver design for a full-duplex MIMO multi-cell system,” IEEE Trans. Communications, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 1027–1041, March 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. J. Rahman, A. C. Cirik and L. Lampe, “Power-efficient transceiver design for full-duplex MIMO multi-cell systems with CSI uncertainty,” IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 22689–22703, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Y. Sun, D. W. K. Ng, J. Zhu, and R. Schober, “Multi-objective optimization for robust power efficient and secure full-duplex wireless communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 5511–5526, Aug. 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Y. Jiang, F. C. M. Lau, I. W. H. Ho, H. Chen, and Y. Huang, “Max min weighted downlink SINR with uplink SINR constraints for full-duplex MIMO systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., no. 12, pp. 3277–3292, Jun. 2017.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    D. Nguyen, L.-N. Tran, P. Pirinen, and M. Latva-aho, “On the spectral efficiency of full-duplex small cell wireless systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 13, no. 9 pp. 4896–4910, Sep. 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    –, “Precoding for full duplex multiuser MIMO systems: spectral and energy efficiency maximization,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 61, no. 16, pp. 4038–4050, Aug. 2013.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    S. Huberman and T. Le-Ngoc, “Full-duplex MIMO precoding for sum-rate maximization with sequential convex programming,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 5103–5112, Nov. 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    –, “MIMO full-duplex precoding: a joint beamforming and self-interference cancellation structure,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 2205–2217, Apr. 2015.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    J. Kim, W. Choi, and H. Park, “Beamforming for full-duplex multiuser MIMO systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 2423–2432, Mar. 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    S. Han, I. Chih-Lin, Z. Xu, C. Pan, and Z. Pan, “Full duplex: Coming into reality in 2020?,” IEEE Global Commun. Conf. (GLOBECOM), pp. 4776–4781, Dec. 2014.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    S. Shao, D. Liu, K. Deng, Z. Pan, and Y. Tang, “Analysis of carrier utilization in full-duplex cellular networks by dividing the co-channel interference region,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1043–1046, June 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    H. Tang, Z. Ding, and B. Levy, “Enabling D2D communications through neighbor discovery in LTE cellular networks,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 62, no. 19, pp. 5157–5170, Oct 2014.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    K. Lee, W. Kang, and H.-J. Choi, “A practical channel estimation and feedback method for device-to-device communication in 3GPP LTE system,” 8th Int. Conf. Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication (ICUIMC), ACM, Jan. 2014.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    F. Baccelli, N. Khude, R. Laroia, J. Li, T. Richardson, S. Shakkottai, S. Tavildar, and X. Wu, “On the design of device-to-device autonomous discovery,” Fourth Int. Conf. Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), pp. 1–9, Jan 2012.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    X. Xia, K. Xu, Y. Wang and Y. Xu, “A 5G-Enabling technology: Benefits, feasibility, and limitations of in-band full-duplex mMIMO,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 81–90, Sept. 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    J. Bai, S. Yeh and Y. Choi, “Interference mitigation and traffic adaptation in full-duplex small cell networks,” IEEE Int. Symp. Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Commun. (PIMRC), pp. 1–6, Oct. 2017.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    S. Sesia, I. Toufik, and M. Baker. LTE: The UMTS Long Term Evolution From Theory to Practice. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    G. Noh, H. Wang, C. Shin, S. Kim, Y. Jeon, H. Shin, J. Kim, and I. Kim, “Enabling technologies toward fully LTE-compatible full-duplex radio,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 188–195, March 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    3GPP, “TR38.802: Study on new radio access technology Physical layer aspects,” TR38.802 V14.2.0, Release-14, September 2017,
  69. 69.
    RP-182864, “Revised WID on Cross Link Interference (CLI) handling and Remote Interference Management (RIM) for NR,” LG Electronics, 3GPP TSG RAN Meeting 82, Dec., 2018.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    R1-1700270, “Discussion on dynamic TDD and cross-link interference mitigation schemes,” ZTE, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 AH-NR 1 Meeting, Jan. 2016.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Y. Li, P. Fan, A. Leukhin and L. Liu, “On the spectral and energy efficiency of full-duplex small-cell wireless systems with massive MIMO,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 2339–2353, Mar. 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    J. Bai and A. Sabharwal, “Asymptotic analysis of MIMO multi-cell full-duplex networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 2168–2180, Apr. 2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    F. Rusek, D. Persson, B. K. Lau, E. Larsson, T. Marzetta, O. Edfors, and F. Tufvesson, “Scaling up MIMO: Opportunities and challenges with very large arrays,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 40–60, Jan. 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    M. Amir Khojastepour, K. Sundaresan, S. Rangarajan, and M. Farajzadeh-Tehrani, “Scaling wireless full-duplex in multi-cell networks,”IEEE Conf. Computer Communications (INFOCOM), pp. 1751–1759, April 2015.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    W. Ouyang, J. Bai, and A. Sabharwal, “Leveraging one-hop information in massive MIMO full-duplex wireless systems,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1528–1539, June 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    V. V. Mai, J. Kim, S. W. Jeon, S. W. Choi, B. Seo, and W. Y. Shin, “Degrees of freedom of millimeter wave full-duplex systems with partial CSIT,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1042–1045, May 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    A. Yadav, G. I. Tsiropoulos, and O. A. Dobre, “Full-duplex communications: performance in ultradense mm-wave small-cell wireless networks,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 40–47, Jun. 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ofinno TechnologiesRestonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations