Advertisement

Intimate Nostalgia: Emerging Gay Activism and Technologies of Localization

  • Hendri Yulius Wijaya
Chapter
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter examines the emergence of gay activism in the authoritarian New Order era. As homosexuality became increasingly visible and discussed in the public realm, gay activists exploited this ‘sudden openness’ to circulate more queer-affirming discourses of homosexuality. Gay activists adopted multiple strategies that included circulating Western sexuality discourses to promote more positive views of homosexuality. Equally importantly, they also strategically conjured imagined connectivity between local homosexual and transgender practices that were found in particular ethnolinguistic groups, on the one hand, and contemporary gay identity, on the other hand. This chapter argues that the process of connecting modern gay identity and localized homosexual and/or transgender practices has disrupted the idea of a singular point of origin and a Western-centric line of the genealogy of gay identity, and has generated a nostalgic fantasy that Indonesia in the past was actually ‘tolerant’ of homosexuality.

Keywords

Nostalgia New Order Gay Localization 

References

  1. Agustine, R. R. 2008. “Rahasia Sunyi: Gerakan Lesbian di Indonesia.” Jurnal Perempuan 58: 59–72.Google Scholar
  2. Aizura, Aren Z. 2018. Mobile Subjects: Transnational Imaginaries of Gender Reassignment. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Amin, Kadji. 2017. Disturbing Attachments: Genet, Modern Pederasty, and Queer History. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 2019. “Haunted by the 1990s: Queer Theory’s Affective Histories.” In Imagining Queer Methods, edited by Amin Ghaziani and Matt Brim, 277–293. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, Benedict. 2001. “Dari Serat Tjentini sampai GAYa Nusantara.” In Memberi Suara pada Yang Bisu, Dédé Oetomo, xi–xxvii. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Marwa.Google Scholar
  6. Ardhanary Institute. 2016. “CALALAI, Bukti Keragaman Gender Dalam Kebudayaan Indonesia.” Ardhanary Institute, April 12. http://ardhanaryinstitute.org/index.php/2016/04/12/calalai-bukti-keragaman-gender-dalam-kebudayaan-indonesia/.
  7. Ary, R. M. 1987. Gay: Dunia Ganjil Kaum Homofil. Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti.Google Scholar
  8. Aspinall, Edward. 2018. “Democratization: Travails and Achievements.” In Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Indonesia, edited by Robert W. Hefner, 83–94. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Atmojo, Kemala. 1986. Kami Bukan Lelaki: Sebuah Sketsa Kehidupan Kaum Waria. Jakarta Utara: PT Pustaka Utama Grafiti.Google Scholar
  10. Blackwood, Evelyn. 2010. Falling into the Lesbi World: Desire and Difference in Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  11. Boellstorff, Tom. 2004. “Zines and Zones of Desire: Mass-Mediated Love, National Romance, and Sexual Citizenship in Gay Indonesia.” The Journal of Asian Studies 63 (2): 367–402.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 2005. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 2007. A Coincidence of Desires: Anthropology, Queer Studies, Indonesia. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Budiman, Amen. 1982. Wadam: Pengertian dan Masalahnya. Semarang: Penerbit Tanjung Sari.Google Scholar
  15. Castiglia, Christopher, and Christopher Reed. 2012. If Memory Serves: Gay Men, AIDS, and the Promise of the Queer Past. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  16. Cavalcante, Andre. 2018. Struggling for Ordinary: Media and Transgender Belonging in Everyday Life. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, Jian Neo. 2019. Trans Exploits: Trans of Color Cultures and Technologies in Movement. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Christanty, Linda. 2009. Dari Jawa Menuju Atjeh: Kumpulan Tulisan tentang Politik, Islam, dan Gay. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Popular Gramedia.Google Scholar
  19. Davies, Sharyn Graham. 2010. Gender Diversity in Indonesia: Sexuality, Islam, and Queer Selves. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. ———. 2015. “Sexual Surveillance.” In Sex and Sexualities in Contemporary Indonesia: Sexual Politics, Health, Diversity and Representations, edited by Linda Rae Bennett and Sharyn Graham Davies, 10–31. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Dibley, Thushara. 2019. “Democratization and Disability Activism in Indonesia.” In Activists in Transition: Progressive Politics in Democratic Indonesia, edited by Thushara Dibley and Michele Ford, 171–186. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dickinson, Tommy. 2015. ‘Curing Queers’: Mental Nurses and Their Patients, 1935–1974. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Emont, Jon. 2016. “A Happy Warrior in a Faltering Battle for Indonesian Gay Rights.” The New York Times, August 19. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/20/world/asia/indonesia-gay-rights-dede-oetomo.html.
  24. Febriyanti, Kiki. 2015. Calalai—In-Betweenness: A Documentary. 40 minutes. Recorded in Indonesia. Google Scholar
  25. Freccero, Carla. 2006. Queer/Early/Modern. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Freeman, Elizabeth. 2019. Beside You in Time: Sense Methods and Queer Sociabilities in the American 19th Century. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Foucault, Michel. 1978. The History of Sexuality Volume 1: An Introduction. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  28. Ghaziani, Amin, and Matt Brim. 2019. “Queer Methods: Four Provocations for an Emerging Field.” In Imagining Queer Methods, edited by Amin Ghaziani and Matt Brim, 3–27. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Hakim, Budi Rahman. 2004. “Modernization of Social Work and the State: A Critical Survey of its Historical Development in Indonesia.” Master’s thesis, McGill University, Montreal.Google Scholar
  30. Halperin, David M. 2000. “How to Do the History of Male Homosexuality.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 6 (1): 87–123.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2002. How to Do the History of Homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Hefner, Robert W. 2000. Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hegarty, Benjamin. 2018. “Under the Lights, Onto the Stage.” TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly 5 (3): 355–377.Google Scholar
  34. Hester, Helen. 2018. Xenofeminism. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  35. Hidayana, Irwan Martua. 2018. “On Gender Diversity in Indonesia.” The Conversation, September 12. https://theconversation.com/on-gender-diversity-in-indonesia-101087.
  36. Howard, Richard Stephen. 1996. “Falling into the Gay World: Manhood, Marriage, and Family in Indonesia.” PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois.Google Scholar
  37. Hurley, Natasha. 2018. Circulating Queerness: Before the Gay and Lesbian Novel. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  38. Lambda Indonesia. 1982a. “Homoseks: Siapa Dia?” In Gaya Hidup Ceria, vol. 1. Solo: Lambda Indonesia.Google Scholar
  39. ———. 1982b. “Laki-Laki Gay yang Menikah.” In Gaya Hidup Ceria, vol. 3, 6–7. Solo: Lambda Indonesia.Google Scholar
  40. Loftin, Craig M. 2012. Masked Voices: Gay Men and Lesbians in Cold War America. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  41. Love, Heather. 2007. Feeling Backward: Loss and the Politics of Queer History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Martin, Fran. 2010. Backward Glances: Contemporary Chinese Cultures and the Female Homoerotic Imaginary. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Muñoz, José Esteban. 2019. Cruising Utopia: The Then and There of Queer Futurity-10th anniversary edition. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Murtagh, Ben. 2013. Genders and Sexualities in Indonesian Cinema: Constructing Gay, Lesbi and Waria Identities on Screen. Hoboken: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. Oetomo, Dédé. 2001. Memberi Suara Pada Yang Bisu. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Marwa.Google Scholar
  46. Oetomo, Dédé. 1982. “Menghapus Arang yang Tercoreng di Kening.” In G: Gaya Hidup Ceria, vol. 1. Solo: Lambda Indonesia.Google Scholar
  47. ———. 2007. “Gay Identities.” Inside Indonesia, September 30. https://www.insideindonesia.org/gay-identities-2.
  48. ———. 2016. “The Power of Knowledge: Towards the Transformative Use of Science in Empowering Marginalised Groups in Society.” Facebook, September 19. https://www.facebook.com/notes/dede-oetomo/the-power-of-knowledge-towards-the-transformative-use-of-science-in-empowering-m/1087627224606521/.
  49. ———. 2019. “Trans Women Led Indonesia’s LGBTI Movement and This Is Why It’s Important.” Gay Star News, January 25. https://www.gaystarnews.com/article/trans-women-fought-lgbti-rights-indonesia/#gs.u9a7s2.
  50. ——— (Ed.). 1984. Gays in Indonesia. Fitzroy: Sybylla Press.Google Scholar
  51. Oetomo-Oen, Dédé T. 1982. “Charting Gay Politics in Indonesia.” Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
  52. Pohlman, Annie. 2017. “The Spectre of Communist Women, Sexual Violence and Citizenship in Indonesia.” Sexualities 20 (1–2): 196–211.Google Scholar
  53. Puar, Jasbir K. 2017. Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times—10th Anniversary Expanded Edition. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Reynolds, Robert. 2002. From Camp to Queer: Re-Making the Australian Homosexual. Carlton South, VIC: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Rinaldo, Rachel. 2019. “The Women’s Movement and Indonesia’s Transition to Democracy.” In Activists in Transition: Progressive Politics in Democratic Indonesia, edited by Thushara Dibley and Michele Ford, 135–152. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Robinson, Kathryn. 2009. Gender, Islam, and Democracy in Indonesia. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Robinson, Kathryn. 2011. “Sawerigading vs. Sharia: Identities and Political Contestation in Decentralised Indonesia.” Asian Journal of Social Science 39 (2): 219–237.Google Scholar
  58. ———. 2015. “Masculinity, Sexuality, and Islam”. In Sex and Sexualities in Contemporary Indonesia, edited by Linda Rae Bennett and Sharyn Graham Davies, 51–68. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Sanchez, Mellisa E. 2019. Queer Faith: Reading Promiscuity and Race in the Secular Love Tradition. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Sen, Krishna. 2011. “Introduction: Re-forming Media in Indonesia’s Transition to Democracy.” In Politics and the Media in Twenty-First Century Indonesia: Decade of Democracy, edited by Krishna Sen and David T. Hill, 1–12. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Stryker, Susan. 2017. Transgender History: The Roots of Today’s Revolution. 2nd ed. New York: Seal Press.Google Scholar
  62. Suryadinata, Leo. 2018. “Ethnic Groups and the Indonesian Nation-State: With Special Reference to Ethnic Chinese.” In Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Indonesia, edited by Robert W. Hefner, 43–53. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Suryakusuma, Julia I. 1996. “The State and Sexuality in New Order Indonesia.” In Fantasizing the Feminine in Indonesia, edited by Laurie J. Sears, 92–119. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt. 2015. The Mushroom at the End of the World: On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  65. UNDP, USAID (United Nations Development Programme and United States Agency for International Development). 2014. Being LGBT in Asia: Indonesia Country Report. Bangkok: UNDP.Google Scholar
  66. Valentine, David. 2007. Imagining Transgender: An Ethnography of a Category. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Waidzunas, Tom. 2015. The Straight Line: How the Fringe Science of Ex-Gay Therapy Reoriented Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  68. Wieringa, Saskia E. 2002. Sexual Politics in Indonesia. Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  69. ———. 2003. “The Birth of the New Order State in Indonesia: Sexual Politics and Nationalism.” Journal of Women’s History 15 (1): 70–91.Google Scholar
  70. ———. 2019. “Is the Recent Wave of Homophobia in Indonesia Unexpected.” In Contentious Belonging: The Place of Minorities in Indonesia, edited by Greg Fealy and Ronit Ricci, 113–132. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.Google Scholar
  71. Wijaya, Hendri Yulius, and Sharyn Graham Davies. 2019. “The Unfulfilled Promise of Democracy: Lesbian and Gay Activism and Indonesia.” In Activists in Transition: Progressive Politics in Democratic Indonesia, edited by Thushara Dibley and Michele Ford, 153–170. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Yulius, Hendri, Shawna Tang, and Baden Offord. 2018. “The Globalization of LGBT Identity and Same-Sex Marriage as a Catalyst of Neo-institutional Values: Singapore and Indonesia in Focus.” In Global Perspectives on Same-Sex Marriage, edited by Bronwyn Winter, Maxime Forest, and Réjane Sénac, 171–196. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hendri Yulius Wijaya
    • 1
  1. 1.JakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations