Frequency Regulation in an Islanded Microgrid with Optimal Fractional Order PID Controller

  • Narendra Kumar Jena
  • Subhadra Sahoo
  • Amar Bijaya Nanda
  • Binod Kumar Sahu
  • Kanungo B. Mohanty
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS, volume 109)


The aim of this paper is to address the load frequency control (LFC) in an isolated ac microgrid endorsing a fractional order PID controller. This microgrid comprises of several distributed generators (DGs) along with energy-storing elements such as photovoltaic panel (PV), wind turbine generator (WTG), diesel generator, fuel cell (FC), microturbine generator (MTG), flywheel (FH) storage unit, and battery energy storage (BES) unit. Due to the intermittent property of natural sources, e.g., fluctuation of wind speed, variation of irradiance, active power fluctuates, by which the frequency in the AC microgrid fluctuates. Besides this, low inertia of MTG and diesel generator, and no inertia of energy-storing element cause the frequency fluctuation in the microgrid in the wake of capricious load demand. So a robust secondary controller is quintessential. In this recommended model, a fractional PID controller is designed by applying symbiotic organisms search (SOS) computational technique. To validate the performance of FOPID, its result is compared with PID controller. Further, the LFC of the system is investigated by enforcing different combinations of chaotic load perturbation, wind power alternation, and solar power variation which confers the robustness of the controller.


Load frequency control Microgrid Fractional order PID controller SOS algorithm 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narendra Kumar Jena
    • 1
  • Subhadra Sahoo
    • 1
  • Amar Bijaya Nanda
    • 1
  • Binod Kumar Sahu
    • 1
  • Kanungo B. Mohanty
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringSiksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be UniversityBhubaneswarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringNIT, RourkelaRourkelaIndia

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