Medicines Pricing: Limitations of Existing Policies and New Models
- 19 Downloads
Medicine price regulation aims to contribute to more affordable access to medicines for both patients and public payers. While there is strong evidence for its achievements, high prices remain a barrier to access, increasingly also in high-income countries. This chapter discusses existing medicine pricing policies, particularly for new medicines, such as external price referencing (EPR), value-based pricing (VBP), tendering and managed entry agreements, with a particular focus on their limitations. New models to address these drawbacks are presented; these include methodological support tools, collaborative approaches and improved transparency.
KeywordsCollaboration Cost-plus pricing Differential pricing External price referencing Health technology assessment Managed entry agreement Medicine price Policy Price regulation Pricing Pricing policies Tendering Transparency Value-based pricing
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative
External price referencing
European network for health technology assessment
Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation
Gulf Cooperation Council
Health Action International
Human immunodeficiency virus
Health technology assessment
Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio
Joint Procurement Agreement
Low- and middle-income countries
Multiple-criteria decision analysis
Managed entry agreement(s)
Manufacturer (price), wholesale (price), pharmacy (retail price net) and pharmacy (retail price gross); alternatively manufacturer, wholesaler, pharmacy and patient
National health service
Pharmaceutical Procurement Service of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States
Pan-American Health Organization
Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement information
Research and development
Randomized controlled trial(s)
Southern African Development Community
Universal health coverage
United Nations Population Fund
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund
United States dollar
World Health Assembly
World Health Organization
- WHO Collaborating Centre for Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies. Glossary of pharmaceutical terms. Update 2018. Vienna: 2018. Available from: https://ppri.goeg.at/ppri-glossary (accessed 3 February 2019).
- WHO, HAI. Measuring medicine prices, availability, affordability and price components. 2nd Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization, Health Action International, 2008.Google Scholar
- Vogler S, Schneider P, Zimmermann N. Preparing price studies – Key methodological decisions. In: Vogler S, editor. Medicine Price Surveys, Analyses and Comparisons. London: Elsevier; 2019a.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. Essential medicines 2019. Available from: https://www.who.int/topics/essential_medicines/en/ (accessed 2 May 2019).
- World Health Organization. Equitable access to essential medicines: a framework for collective action. 2004 Contract No.: 8.Google Scholar
- WHO. The World Medicines Situation. Access to Essential Medicines as Path of the Right to Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2011. Available from: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s18772en/s18772en.pdf (accessed 2 May 2019).
- Ewen M, Zweekhorst M, Regeer B, Laing R. Baseline assessment of WHO’s target for both availability and affordability of essential medicines to treat non-communicable diseases. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(2):e0171284.Google Scholar
- Mendis S, Fukino K, Cameron A, Laing R, Filipe Jr A, Khatib O, et al. The availability and affordability of selected essential medicines for chronic diseases in six low-and middle-income countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007;85(4):279–88.Google Scholar
- Niëns LM, Cameron A, Van de Poel E, Ewen M, Brouwer WB, Laing R. Quantifying the impoverishing effects of purchasing medicines: a cross-country comparison of the affordability of medicines in the developing world. PLoS medicine. 2010;7(8):1056.Google Scholar
- Leive A, Xu K. Coping with out-of-pocket health payments: empirical evidence from 15 African countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008;86(11):849-56C.Google Scholar
- Li Y, Wu Q, Xu L, Legge D, Hao Y, Gao L, et al. Factors affecting catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment from medical expenses in China: policy implications of universal health insurance. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2012;90:664–71.Google Scholar
- Wagner AK, Graves AJ, Reiss SK, LeCates R, Zhang F, Ross-Degnan D. Access to care and medicines, burden of health care expenditures, and risk protection: Results from the World Health Survey. Health policy. 2011;100(2):151–8.Google Scholar
- Iyengar S, Tay-Teo K, Vogler S, Beyer P, Wiktor S, de Joncheere K, et al. Prices, Costs, and Affordability of New Medicines for Hepatitis C in 30 Countries: An Economic Analysis. PLoS Med. 2016;13(5):e1002032.Google Scholar
- Abboud C, Berman E, Cohen A, Cortes J, DeAngelo D, Deininger M, et al. The price of drugs for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a reflection of the unsustainable prices of cancer drugs: from the perspective of a large group of CML experts. Blood. 2013;121(22):4439–42.Google Scholar
- Kantarjian HM, Fojo T, Mathisen M, Zwelling LA. Cancer drugs in the United States: Justum Pretium—the just price. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2013;31(28):3600–4.Google Scholar
- Kelly RJ, Smith TJ. Delivering maximum clinical benefit at an affordable price: engaging stakeholders in cancer care. The lancet oncology. 2014;15(3):e112-e8.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. Technical report: pricing of cancer medicines and its impacts: a comprehensive technical report for the World Health Assembly Resolution 70.12: operative paragraph 2.9 on pricing approaches and their impacts on availability and affordability of medicines for the prevention and treatment of cancer. 2018.Google Scholar
- Zaprutko T, Kopciuch D, Kus K, Merks P, Nowicka M, Augustyniak I, et al. Affordability of medicines in the European Union. Plos one. 2017;12(2):e0172753.Google Scholar
- Council of the European Union. Council conclusions on Encouraging Member States-driven Voluntary Cooperation between Health System. 16 June 2017. Available from: http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-10381-2017-INIT/en/pdf (accessed 1 March 2019).
- Council of the European Union. Council conclusions on strengthening the balance in the pharmaceutical systems in the EU and its Member States. 17 June 2016. Available from: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2016/06/17/epsco-conclusions-balance-pharmaceutical-system/ (accessed 1 March 2019).
- Vogler S, Paris V, Panteli D. Ensuring access to medicines: How to redesign pricing, reimbursement and procurement? Policy Brief 30. Copenhagen: World Health Organization, 2018a.Google Scholar
- Babar Z-U-D. Pharmaceutical Prices in the 21st Century: Springer; 2015.Google Scholar
- Babar Z-U-D, Hussain R, Hasan SS. Medicine Prices in Asia-Pacific Countries. In: Vogler S, editor. Medicine Price Surveys, Analyses and Comparisons (in print)2018.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. WHO Guideline on Country Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies. Geneva: 2013.Google Scholar
- Vogler S, Habl C, Leopold C, Rosian-Schikuta I, de Joncheere K, Lyager Thomsen T. PPRI Report. Vienna: Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information, 2008.Google Scholar
- Vogler S, Haasis MA, Dedet G, Lam J, Bak Pedersen H. Medicines reimbursement policies in Europe. Copenhagen: World Health Organization, 2018b.Google Scholar
- WHO Collaborating Centre for Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies. Glossary of pharmaceutical terms. Update 2016. Vienna: 2016. Available from: http://whocc.goeg.at/Literaturliste/Dokumente/MethodologyTemplate/Glossary_Update2016_final.pdf (accessed 5 January 2018).
- Leopold C, Vogler S, Mantel-Teeuwisse AK, de Joncheere K, Leufkens HG, Laing R. Differences in external price referencing in Europe-A descriptive overview. Health policy. 2012a;104(1):50–60.Google Scholar
- Toumi M, Rémuzat C, Vataire A-L, Urbinati D. External reference pricing of medicinal products: simulation-based considerations for cross-country coordination. Final Report. Available from: https://www.redaccionmedica.com/contenido/images/erp_reimbursement_medicinal_products_en-1.pdf (accessed 28 November 2017). European Commission, 2014.
- Espin J, Rovira J, Ewen M, Laing R. Mapping External Reference Pricing Practices for Medicines. Health Action International and the Andalusian School of Public Health, 2014.Google Scholar
- Vogler S, Lepuschütz L, Schneider P, Stühlinger V. Study on enhanced cross-country coordination in the area of pharmaceutical product pricing. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/health/systems_performance_assessment/docs/pharmaproductpricing_frep_en.pdf (accessed 6 September 2017). Luxembourg: Gesundheit Österreich Forschungs- und Planungs GmbH; Publications Office of the European Commission, 2016a.
- Rémuzat C, Urbinati D, Mzoughi O, El Hammi E, Belgaied W, Toumi M. Overview of external reference pricing systems in Europe. Journal of Market Access & Health Policy. 2015;3.Google Scholar
- Schneider P, Vogler S. Practice of External Price Referencing (EPR). In: Vogler S, editor. Medicine Price Surveys, Analyses and Comparisons (in print)2018.Google Scholar
- Espin J, Rovira J, de Labry AO. Working paper 1: External price referencing – review series on pharmaceutical pricing policies and interventions. Available from: http://www.haiweb.org/medicineprices/24072012/ERPfinalMay2011.pdf (accessed 28 December 2017). Geneva: World Health Organization and Health Action International, 2011.
- Kanavos P, Nicod E, Espin J. Short-and Long-Term Effects of Value-Based Pricing vs. External Price Referencing. Available from: http://whocc.goeg.at/Literaturliste/Dokumente/FurtherReading/Short- and long-term effect of value-based pricing.pdf (accessed 28 December 2017). London: 2010.
- Danzon PM, Epstein AJ. Effects of regulation on drug launch and pricing in interdependent markets: Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2008.Google Scholar
- Danzon PM, Towse A. Differential pricing for pharmaceuticals: reconciling access, R&D and patents. Int J Health Care Finance Econ. 2003;3(3):183–205.Google Scholar
- Danzon PM, Wang YR, Wang L. The impact of price regulation on the launch delay of new drugs—evidence from twenty-five major markets in the 1990s. Health economics. 2005;14(3):269–92.Google Scholar
- Kyle MK. Pharmaceutical price controls and entry strategies. The Review of Economics and Statistics. 2007;89(1):88–99.Google Scholar
- Kanavos P, Fontrier A-M, Gill J, Efthymiadou O, Boekstein N. The Impact of External Reference Pricing within and across Countries. London: London School of Economics, 2017.Google Scholar
- Stargardt D-VT, Schreyögg J. Impact of Cross-Reference Pricing on Pharmaceutical Prices. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. 2006;5(4):235–47.Google Scholar
- Vogler S, Schneider P, Zimmermann N. Evolution of Average European Medicine Prices: Implications for the Methodology of External Price Referencing. PharmacoEconomics Open. 2019b:1–7.Google Scholar
- Morgan S, Vogler S, Wagner AK. Payers’ experiences with confidential pharmaceutical price discounts: a survey of public and statutory health systems in North America, Europe, and Australasia. Health Policy. 2017;121(4):354–62.Google Scholar
- Vogler S, Zimmermann N, Habl C, Piessnegger J, Bucsics A. Discounts and rebates granted to public payers for medicines in European countries. Southern Med Review. 2012;5(1):38–46.Google Scholar
- Bouvy J, Vogler S. Background Paper 8.3 Pricing and Reimbursement Policies: Impacts on Innovation. In: World Health Organization, editor. Priority Medicines for Europe and the World 2013 Update. Geneva World Health Organization; 2013.Google Scholar
- Vogler S, Paterson KR. Can Price Transparency Contribute to More Affordable Patient Access to Medicines? PharmacoEconomics – Open. 2017;1(3):145–7Google Scholar
- WHO. WHO Guideline on Country Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies. Available from: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s21016en/s21016en.pdf (accessed 19 November 2017). Geneva: World Health Organization,, 2013.
- Håkonsen H, Horn AM, Toverud E-L. Price control as a strategy for pharmaceutical cost containment—What has been achieved in Norway in the period 1994–2004? Health policy. 2009;90(2):277–85.Google Scholar
- Leopold C, Mantel-Teeuwisse AK, Seyfang L, Vogler S, de Joncheere K, Laing RO, et al. Impact of External Price Referencing on Medicine Prices–A Price Comparison Among 14 European Countries. Southern Med Review. 2012b;5(1):34–41.Google Scholar
- Windmeijer F, De Laat E, Douven R, Mot E. Pharmaceutical promotion and GP prescription behaviour. Health economics. 2006;15(1):5–18.Google Scholar
- Merkur S, Mossialos E. A pricing policy towards the sourcing of cheaper drugs in Cyprus. Health policy. 2007;81(2):368–75.Google Scholar
- Filko M, Szilagyiova P. Case 3: The Slovak experience in the international price benchmarking for prescription drugs. Value in Health. 2009;12(7):A229.Google Scholar
- Garner S, Rintoul A, Hill SR. Value-Based Pricing: L’Enfant Terrible? PharmacoEconomics. 2018;36(1):5–6.Google Scholar
- Claxton K. Oft, Vbp: Qed? Health economics. 2007;16(6):545–58.Google Scholar
- Vogler S. Fair prices for medicines? Exploring competent authorities’ and public payers’ preferences on pharmaceutical policies. Empirica. 2019.Google Scholar
- Dholakia UM. A Quick Guide to Value-Based Pricing. Harvard Business Review, 2016. Avaiable from: https://hbr.org/2016/08/a-quick-guide-to-value-based-pricing (accessed 8 June 2019).
- Godman B, Gustafsson LL. A new reimbursement system for innovative pharmaceuticals combining value-based and free market pricing. Applied health economics and health policy. 2013;11(1):79.Google Scholar
- Consultative Expert Working Group on Research and Development. Follow-up of the report of the Consultative Expert Working Group on Research and Development: Financing and Coordination (CEWG). Available from: http://www.who.int/phi/cewg/en/ (accessed 26 June 2016). 2016.
- Franken M, le Polain M, Cleemput I, Koopmanschap M. Similarities and differences between five European drug reimbursement systems. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. 2012;28(4):349.Google Scholar
- Hughes DA. Value-Based Pricing. Incentive for Innovation or Zero Net Benefit? Pharmacoeconomics. 2011;29(9):731–5.Google Scholar
- WHO. Fair Pricing Forum. 2017 Meeting Report. Available from: http://www.who.int/medicines/access/fair_pricing/FairPricingForum2017MeetingReport.pdf?ua=1 (accessed 29 October 2017). Geneva: World Health Organization, 2017.
- Paris V, Belloni A. Value in Pharmaceutical Pricing. OECD Health Working Papers, No. 63. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2013.Google Scholar
- Simoens S, Picavet E, Dooms M, Cassiman D, Morel T. Cost-effectiveness assessment of orphan drugs: a scientific and political conundrum. Applied health economics and health policy. 2013;11(1):1.Google Scholar
- Nguyen TA, Knight R, Roughead EE, Brooks G, Mant A. Policy options for pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing: issues for low-and middle-income countries. Health Policy and Planning. 2014;30:267–80.Google Scholar
- Rovira J. Can EU citizens afford their medicines? The financial crisis and access to medicines in Europe. Presentation. Brussels: High Level Meeting. The European Parliament, 2013.Google Scholar
- Mossialos E, Dukes G. Affordably priced new drugs for poor populations: Approaches for a global solution. The International journal of risk & safety in medicine. 2000;14(1):1–29.Google Scholar
- Babar ZUD, Atif M. Differential pricing of pharmaceuticals: a bibliometric review of the literature. Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research. 2014;5(3):149–56.Google Scholar
- Access And Affordability Initiative. Access accelerated. Available from: https://accessaccelerated.org/initiative/access-and-affordability-initiative/ (accessed 19 May 2018). 2018.
- Yadav P. Differential pricing of pharmaceuticals: Review of current knowledge, new findings and ideas for action – A study conducted for the UK Department for International Development (DFID). Zaragoza: MIT Zaragoza International Logistics Program, 2010.Google Scholar
- Moon S, Jambert E, Childs M, von Schoen-Angerer T. A ‘win-win solution?’: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries. Globalization and Health. 2011;7:39.Google Scholar
- De Souza N. Competition in Pharmaceuticals: the challenges ahead post AstraZeneca. Competition policy newsletter. 2007(1):39–43.Google Scholar
- Waning B, Kaplan W, King AC, Lawrence DA, Leufkens HG, Fox MP. Global strategies to reduce the price of antiretroviral medicines: evidence from transactional databases. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2009;87(7):520–8.Google Scholar
- Vogler S, Habl C, Leopold C, Mazag J, Morak S, Zimmermann N. PHIS Hospital Pharma Report. Available from: http://whocc.goeg.at/Literaturliste/Dokumente/BooksReports/PHIS_Hospital Pharma_Report.pdf (accessed 3 April 2018). Vienna: Pharmaceutical Health Information System (PHIS); commissioned by the European Commission and the Austrian Federal Ministry of Health, 2010a.
- Dylst P, Vulto A, Simoens S. Tendering for outpatient prescription pharmaceuticals: What can be learned from current practices in Europe? Health Policy. 2011;101(2):146–52.Google Scholar
- Kanavos P. Tender systems for outpatient pharmaceuticals in the European Union: Evidence from the Netherlands and Germany. Available from: http://www.progenerika.de/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Anlage-2_Tendering-Report-EMINET-13OCT2012-FINAL.pdf (accessed 1 March 2018). London: EMINET, January. 2012.
- T’Hoen E, Moon S, Pecoul B. Pills and pocketbooks. 2001.Google Scholar
- Ferrario A, Kanavos P, Humbert T, Iwamoto K, Bak Pedersen H. Challenges and opportunities in improving access to medicines through efficient public procurement in WHO European Region. 2016 9289052155.Google Scholar
- Klemp M, Frønsdal KB, Facey K. What principles should govern the use of managed entry agreements? International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. 2011;27(01):77–83.Google Scholar
- Carlson JJ, Sullivan SD, Garrison LP, Neumann PJ, Veenstra DL. Linking payment to health outcomes: A taxonomy and examination of performance-based reimbursement schemes between healthcare payers and manufacturers. Health Policy. 2010;96(3):179–90.Google Scholar
- Garrison LP, Towse A, Briggs A, de Pouvourville G, Grueger J, Mohr PE, et al. Performance-based risk-sharing arrangements—good practices for design, implementation, and evaluation: report of the ISPOR good practices for performance-based risk-sharing arrangements task force. Value in Health. 2013;16(5):703–19.Google Scholar
- Ferrario A, Kanavos P. Managed entry agreements for pharmaceuticals: The European experience. EMINet, 2013.Google Scholar
- Pauwels K, Huys I, Vogler S, Casteels M, Simoens S. Managed Entry Agreements for oncology drugs: lessons from the European experience to inform the future. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017;8:171.Google Scholar
- Gerkens S, Neyt M, San Miguel L, Vinck I, Thiry N, Cleemput I. How to improve the Belgian process for managed entry agreements? An analysis of the Belgian and international experience. Brussels: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE), 2017.Google Scholar
- Vogler S, Paris V, Ferrario A, Wirtz VJ, de Joncheere K, Schneider P, et al. How Can Pricing and Reimbursement Policies Improve Affordable Access to Medicines? Lessons Learned from European Countries. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. 2017:1–15.Google Scholar
- Lieven A, Luca P. Dynamic outcomes based approaches to pricing and reimbursement of innovative medicines. 2017.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. 2015 Global Survey on Health Technology Assessment by National Authorities (accessed 5 February 2018). Geneva: 2015.Google Scholar
- EUnetHTA. EUnetHTA WP7: Implementation report. European network for health technology assessment, November 2018.Google Scholar
- Beneluxa Initiative on Pharmaceutical Policy. HTA 2018. Available from: http://www.beneluxa.org/hta (accessed 16 July 2019).
- Jommi C, Minghetti P. Pharmaceutical pricing policies in Italy. Pharmaceutical prices in the 21st century: Springer; 2015. p. 131–50.Google Scholar
- Pan American Health Organization. PAHO Strategic Fund. 2017. Available from: http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12163&Itemid=42005&lang=en (accessed 22 July 2019).
- WHO. Multi-Country Regional Procurement of Medicines. World Health Organization,, 2007.Google Scholar
- European Commission. Medical Countermeasures that could be procured in common under the joint procurement agreement. Accessible at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/preparedness_response/docs/jpa_note_scope_en.pdf (accessed 1 March 2019). Luxembourg: 2014.
- Vogler S, Lepuschütz L, Schneider P, Stühlinger V. Study on enhanced cross-country coordination in the area of pharmaceutical product pricing. Luxembourg: Gesundheit Österreich Forschungs- und Planungs GmbH; Publications Office of the European Commission, 2016c.Google Scholar
- Espín J, Rovira J, Calleja A, Azzopardi-Muscat N, Richardson E, Palm W, et al. How can voluntary cross-border collaboration in public procurement improve access to health technologies in Europe? Policy Brief. 2016;21. Available from: https://www.eu2017.mt/Documents/Programmes/PB21.pdf (accessed 1 March 2019).
- AMGROS. First Common Nordic Tendering Procedure Launched. 26 April 2019. Available from: https://amgros.dk/en/knowledge-and-analyses/articles/first-common-nordic-tendering-procedure-launched/.
- Vogler Sabine, Suleman Fatima. Research study on impact and benefits of cross border collaboration in WHO European Region. Presentation at the International Conference “Facing the Challenges: Equity, Sustainability and Access”. Lisbon: 28 November 2018. Available from: http://www.infarmed.pt/documents/15786/2835945/Sabine+Vogler_Fatima+Suleman.pdf/ec485707-043e-404e-b5a1-74c4f0d59390 (accessed 21 July 2019).
- Vogler S, Zimmermann N, Mazag J. Procuring medicines in hospitals: results of the European PHIS survey. EJHP Practice. 2011(2):20–1.Google Scholar
- PMPRB. Strategic Plan 2015–2018. Ottawa: Patented Medicine Prices Review Board 2015.Google Scholar
- United Nations Secretary General’s High-Level Panel on Access to Medicines. Report of the United Nations Secretary General’s High-Level Panel on Access to Medicines. Promoting innovation and access to health technologies. September 2016.Google Scholar
- WHO. Fair Pricing Forum. 2017 Meeting Report. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2017. Available from: http://www.who.int/medicines/access/fair_pricing/FairPricingForum2017MeetingReport.pdf?ua=1 (accessed 1 March 2019).
- Mardetko N, Kos M, Vogler S. Review of studies reporting actual prices for medicines. Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research. 2018;19(2).Google Scholar
- Morgan SG, Thomson PA, Daw JR, Friesen MK. Canadian policy makers’ views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers. Health Policy. 2013;112(3):248–54.Google Scholar
- Khatib R, McKee M, Shannon H, Chow C, Rangarajan S, Teo K, et al. Availability and affordability of cardiovascular disease medicines and their effect on use in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: an analysis of the PURE study data. The Lancet. 2016;387(10013):61–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Machado M, O’Brodovich R, Krahn M, Einarson TR. International drug price comparisons: quality assessment. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica. 2011;29(1):46–51.Google Scholar
- Vogler S, Habl C, Leopold C, Mazag J, Morak S, Zimmermann N. PHIS Hospital Pharma Report. Vienna: Pharmaceutical Health Information System (PHIS); commissioned by the European Commission and the Austrian Federal Ministry of Health, 2010b.Google Scholar
- WHA. Improving the transparency of markets for medicines, vaccines, and other health products. Resolution. Geneva: World Health Assembly, 28 May 2019.Google Scholar
- DNDi. An innovative approach to R&D for neglected patients: Ten years of experience and lessons learned by DNDi. Drugs for Neglected Diseases (DNDi), 2014.Google Scholar
- Røttingen J-A, Regmi S, Eide M, Young AJ, Viergever RF, Årdal C, et al. Mapping of available health research and development data: what’s there, what’s missing, and what role is there for a global observatory? The Lancet. 2013;382(9900):1286–307.Google Scholar
- UNITAID. An economic perspective on delinking the cost of R+D from the price of medicines. Discussion paper. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2016.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. Global strategy and plan of action on public health, innovation and intellectual property. Geneva: 2011.Google Scholar
- Velásquez G, Seuba X. Rethinking global health: A binding convention for R&D for pharmaceutical products. South Center Research Papers. 2011;42:29.Google Scholar
- Moon S, Bermudez J, t Hoen E. Innovation and Access to Medicines for Neglected Populations: Could a Treaty Address a Broken Pharmaceutical R& System? PLoS Med. 2012;9(5):e1001218.Google Scholar
- Jayadev A, Stiglitz J. Two ideas to increase innovation and reduce pharmaceutical costs and prices. Health Affairs. 2009;28(1):w165-w8.Google Scholar
- Love J, Hubbard T. Bid Idea: Prizes to Stimulate R& (and) D for New Medicines, The. Chi-Kent L Rev. 2007;82:1519.Google Scholar
- Agitha T. Alternative incentive models delinking R&D costs from pharmaceutical product price. Journal of Intellectual Property Rights 2013;18(5):491–8.Google Scholar
- The Review on Antimicrobial Resistance. Tackling drug-resistent infections globally: Final Report and Recommendations. London: 2016.Google Scholar