A Study on Conversion of Glycerol into Solketal Using Rice Husk-Derived Catalyst

  • Jaspreet Kaur
  • Poonam Gera
  • M. K. Jha
  • Anil Kumar SarmaEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Energy book series (SPE)


Glycerol is the primary by-product produced from the first-generation biofuels, i.e., biodiesel. The large-scale production of biodiesel provides an enormous amount of glycerol as a waste stream and is responsible for low market value of glycerol. Hence, there is a need for the conversion of glycerol to accumulate this huge amount of glycerol. Glycerol can be used as a renewable feedstock to produce useful precursors or converted directly into useful derivatives. The conversion of glycerol into solketal, a condensation product, was achieved using acidic catalyst derived from rice husk. The GC obtained for different samples of the reaction at 100 °C for 2 h in a batch reactor confirms the glycerol conversion up to 55% with the catalyst prepared from rice husk biomass with a size >75 μm. The yield of the solketal was observed to be affected by the reaction time, i.e., reaction got completed within 120 min, and after that, there is no appreciable difference in the glycerol conversion. Thus, this could be a good alternative for converting glycerol into valuable product mainly solketal which is an effective ingredient as a fuel additive during blending biodiesel with petroleum diesel.


Rice husk Glycerol Solketal GC FTIR 


  1. 1.
    B.F. Tapah, R.C.D. Santos, G.A. Leeke, Processing of glycerol under sub- and super-critical water conditions. Renew. Energy 62, 353–361 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.O. Guerrero-perez, J.M. Rosas, J. Bedia, J. Rodriguez-mirasol, T. Cordero, Recent inventions in glycerol transformation and processing. Recent. Pattents Chem. Eng. 2(1), 1–11 (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Padhi, A.K. Panda, R.K. Singh, Value added derivatives of glycerol obtained from biodiesel industry: a review. Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol. 2(8), 1119–1169 (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.E. Diaz-Alvarez, J. Francos, B. Lastra-Barriera, P. Crochet, V. Cadierno, Glycerol and derived solvents: new sustainable reaction media for organic synthesis. Chem. Commun. 47, 6208–6227 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Bagheri, N.M. Julkapli, W.A. Yehye, Catalytic conversion of biodiesel derived raw glycerol to value-added products. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 41, 113–127 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.E. Graham, T.E. Davies, S.A. Kondrat, J.J. Graham, D.C. Apperley, S.H. Taylor, Dehydrative etherification reactions of glycerol with alcohols catalysed by recyclable nanoporous aluminosilicates: telescoped routes to glycerol ethers. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 1–28 (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Anitha, S.K. Kamarudin, N.T. Kofli, The potential of glycerol as a value-added commodity. Chem. Eng. J. 295, 119–130 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Goncalves, R. Rodrigues, T.S. Galhardo, W.A. Carvalho, Highly selective acetalization of glycerol with acetone to solketal over acidic carbon-based catalysts from biodiesel waste. Fuel 181, 46–54 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Royon, S. Locatelli, E.E. Gonzo, Ketalisation of glycerol to solketal in supercritical acetone. J. Supercrit. Fluids 58(1), 88–92 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.R. Nanda, Y. Zhang, Z. Yuan, W. Qin, H.S. Ghaziaskar, S. Charles, Catalytic conversion of glycerol for sustainable production of solketal as a fuel additive: a review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 56(1), 1022–1031 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringDr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of TechnologyJalandharIndia
  2. 2.Chemical Conversion DivisionSwaran Singh National Institute of Bio-EnergyKapurthalaIndia

Personalised recommendations