Extending on Feminist Institutionalism

  • Radha Wagle
  • Soma Pillay
  • Wendy Wright


This chapter examines, within the context of the insights offered in Chap.  6, five major themes (1) the concept of women’s inclusion, (2) organizational culture, (3) formal and informal institutions, (4) structure and agency, and (5) power relations. These five themes and, where relevant, their sub-themes are further explored and discussed in the light of literature and policy practice context of forest bureaucracy. Sections 7.2 and 7.3 discuss women’s inclusion in the forest bureaucracy by comparing and contrasting the idea with women’s social inclusion, gender and women’s empowerment. The nature of organizational culture in the Nepalese forest bureaucracy is discussed, by considering the prevailing practices and struggles of female employees in the light of theoretical contexts. The complexities of formal and informal institutions in the Nepalese forest bureaucracy are described. The emerging feminist movement in the forest bureaucracy is discussed in Sect. 7.6, emphasizing the concept of structure and agency in institutions. Finally, persistence and change in power relations between males and females are examined.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radha Wagle
    • 1
  • Soma Pillay
    • 2
  • Wendy Wright
    • 3
  1. 1.Ministry of Forests and EnvironmentKathmanduNepal
  2. 2.Federation Business SchoolFederation University Australia Berwick CampusMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.School of Health and Life SciencesFederation University AustraliaGippslandAustralia

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