Moral Knowing (liangzhi, 良知)
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Moral knowing is an important concept in Confucian moral philosophy. It refers to a congenitally endowed moral consciousness and a capacity for moral knowing that exists universally in all peoples. The concept of moral knowing was first proposed by Mencius and was developed upon by Wang Yangming and came to have an extensive influence on the development of Chinese philosophy. At the same time, there were different understandings of the concept of moral knowing, in particular, Wang Yangming’s influential philosophy engendered many different views and led to relatively heated arguments.