We know that sleep problems often occur in patients with PD, such as difficulty in falling asleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, etc. However, as a key indicator of sleep maintenance insomnia, sleep fragmentation is the most common complaint of sleep.
Risk factors for poor sleep include various physical diseases, female, poor sleep habits, life stress events, etc. Similarly, there are different sleep risk factors in Parkinson’s disease. In addition to the motor symptoms associated with PD, such as tremor, stiffness, leg spasm and dystonia, sleep disorders associated with PD are also very common, such as primary sleep disorders, psychophysiological insomnia (independent of the disease), RLS/PLMD, vivid dreams/nightmares and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).
Studies have confirmed that the insomnia of PD patients is related to many factors, among which the severe motor and non-motor symptoms are more closely related. Therefore, the quality of life of patients is obviously affected.
Existing evidence supports that the treatment of insomnia with PD is considered insufficient. Controlled-release carbidopa-levodopa, eszopiclone and melatonin 3–5 mg were considered acceptable risks without special monitoring. Although there is limited evidence to support the treatment of other psychiatric disorders that may lead to insomnia, the treatment of insomnia for specific psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and hallucinations, is worth considering in clinical trials.
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