An Overview of Parkinson’s Disease

  • Cheng-Jie Mao
  • Chun-Feng LiuEmail author


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the nervous system after Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Although the importance of non-motor symptoms is now widely acknowledged, we are still hampered by a lack of well-conducted research into effective treatments.

Regardless of certain possible pathogenesis, including aging, environmental toxicant, and heredity, the authentic cause of PD has still been remained uncovered so far. Pre-warning screening of PD before motor symptoms begin is one of the scientific hot issues and also an essential way to early diagnosis in need for thorough exploration.

In addition, progression of PD may depend on many unidentified pathogenic factor. Screening for early warnings may be discovered and enabled by other sensitive markers. There is a long way to go for discovering and establishing other sensitive and specific markers for early screening. It remains uncovered how we can know about physiological states and how we can create a better individualized way of screening depending on various group of people at risk applied to very early stage.


Parkinson’s disease Pathogenesis Premotor stage Non-motor symptoms Pre-warning screening 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyThe Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow UniversitySuzhouChina

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