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Steel cannot be produced directly from the iron ore. Steel is a product obtained by refining or purification of impure iron (i.e. hot metal). So, steelmaking is an oxidation process by which refining of hot metal take place. Steelmaking is a refining process in which impurity elements are oxidized from hot metal and steel scrap which are charged as raw materials to the furnace. Before modern steelmaking processes are developed, there are three earlier processes such as wrought ironmaking, cementation process, and crucible process are established.
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