Role of Nutrition and Rehabilitation in the Prevention and Management of Sarcopenia and Frailty

  • Hidetaka Wakabayashi


A concept of rehabilitation nutrition is recommended for preventing and treating sarcopenia, frailty, and malnutrition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Rehabilitation nutrition elicits the highest body functions, activities, participants, and quality of life (QOL) by improving nutritional status, sarcopenia, and frailty. Iatrogenic sarcopenia and iatrogenic frailty are defined as sarcopenia and frailty caused by the activities of medical staff including doctors, nurses, or other health-care professionals in health-care facilities. Prevention and treatment of iatrogenic sarcopenia and iatrogenic frailty are particularly important in acute phase hospitals. Sarcopenic dysphagia is defined as dysphagia due to sarcopenia in both generalized skeletal muscles and swallowing-related muscles. Presbyphagia is characterized by age-related changes in the swallowing mechanism. Sarcopenic dysphagia and presbyphagia are common in older CKD patients with sarcopenia, frailty, and malnutrition. High-quality rehabilitation nutrition for preventing and treating sarcopenia, frailty, sarcopenic dysphagia, and presbyphagia in CKD patients can be implemented by using the rehabilitation nutrition care process. Rehabilitation nutrition care process includes five steps such as rehabilitation nutrition assessment and diagnostic reasoning, rehabilitation nutrition diagnosis, rehabilitation nutrition goal setting, rehabilitation nutrition intervention, and rehabilitation nutrition monitoring. Further studies on rehabilitation nutrition are important, where the number of CKD patients with sarcopenia and frailty is expected to increase.


Clinical practice guideline Iatrogenic frailty Iatrogenic sarcopenia Sarcopenic dysphagia Presbyphagia Rehabilitation nutrition Rehabilitation nutrition care process 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hidetaka Wakabayashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineYokohama City University Medical CenterYokohamaJapan

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