Advertisement

Understanding Food Policy Process in India: An Application to Food Security Act of 2013

  • Suresh Chandra BabuEmail author
  • Namita Paul
  • Anjani Kumar
Chapter

Abstract

Food security is a common challenge among South Asian countries, and it leads to major effects on health outcomes. Two of the Sustainable Development Goals focus on eliminating hunger, promoting good health and enhancing well-being. Hunger and malnutrition are also linked to poverty, since low income limits access to nutritious food, basic health care and proper sanitation. Hunger and malnutrition have long-term impacts on communities, such as stunting in children. Other impacts include infant deaths, low immunity and poor cognitive development. The consequences of hunger and malnutrition are severe and have negative effects in overall development of a country. Even though this has been well understood, developing countries face issues in creating effective policies. To understand the drives of policy change, this paper uses case study approach and applied the Kaleidoscope model to trace the policy process of food security in India. We studied the National Food Security Act of 2013, India, in detail and tested the 16 hypotheses of the kaleidoscope model to understand the policy process. Results indicate that the National Food Security Act was influenced due to political motivations such as central government elections.

Keywords

Food security Policy process Kaleidoscope model India 

References

  1. Babu, S. C. (2013). Policy process and food price crisis: A framework for analysis and lessons learned from country studies. UNU-WIDER Working Paper 70. Helsinki: United National World Institute for Development Economics Research.Google Scholar
  2. Babu, S. C. (2016). Policy processes and food price crises: A framework for analysis and lessons from country studies. In P. Pinstrup-Anderson (Ed.), Food price policy in an era of market instability: A political economy analysis (pp. 76–101). Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Berry, F. S., & Berry, W. D. (1992). Tax innovation in the states: Capitalizing on political opportunity. American Journal of Political Science, 36(3), 715–742.Google Scholar
  4. Bhalla, S. S. (2015). Food, hunger and nutrition in India: A case of redistributive failure.Google Scholar
  5. Baumgartner, F. R., & Jones, B. D. (1993). Agendas and instabilities in American politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. Chada, N. (2016). Food security in India: Issues and challenges. International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences 79–86.Google Scholar
  7. Chattopadhyay, S. (2018). Social sector expenditure in India in the 2000s: Trends and implications. Journal of Development Policy and Practice, 3(1), 16–40.Google Scholar
  8. Chauhan, A., Krishnan, B. S., & Ramawat, N. (2014). Indian Food Security Act, 2013—Issues and reprecussions. Insternational Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Technology, 5(2), 9–14.Google Scholar
  9. Chhokar, J., Babu, S. C., & Kolavalli, S. (2014). Improving the food policy process: Lessons from capacity strengthening of parliamentarians in Ghana. IFPRI Discussion Paper No.1401. Washington, DC: IFPRI.Google Scholar
  10. Court, J., & Young, J. (2003). Bridging research and policy: Insights from 50 Case Studies. ODI Working Paper 213, 2003.Google Scholar
  11. Desai, S., Vanneman, R. (2015). Enhancing nutrition security via India’s Food Security Act: Using an axe instead of a scalpel?” India Policu Forum 67–113.Google Scholar
  12. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. (2013). The state of food insecurity in the world: Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  13. Gaiha, R., Jha, R., & Kulkarni, V. (2014). Diets, malnutrition and disease: The Indian experience.Google Scholar
  14. Government of India. (n.d.). Ministry of consumer affairs, Publica distrubition. http://dfpd.nic.in/index.htm.
  15. Government of India. (2011). National food security bill, 2011. http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/nfsb_final.pdf.
  16. Haggblade, S., Babu, S., Hendriks, S., Mather, D., & Resnick, D. (2017). What drives policy change? evidence from six empirical applications of the kaleidoscope model. Feed the future innovation lab for food security policy research brief 31. East Lansing: Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  17. Jenkins-Smith, H., & Sabatier, P. (1993). The study of public policy processes. In P. Sabatier & H. Jenkins-Smith (Eds.), Policy change and learning: An advocacy coalition approach (pp. 1–9). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  18. Khera, R. (2011). Trends in diversion of grain from the public distribution system. Economic and Political Weekly.Google Scholar
  19. Kingdon, J. W. (1984). Agendas, alternatives and public policies. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  20. Kishore, A., Joshi, P. K., & Hoddinott, J. F. (2014). India’s right to food act: A novel approach to food security. In 2013 Global Food Policy Report, by International Food Policy Research Institute, pp. 29–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/9780896295629.
  21. Kochar, A. (2005). Can targeted food programs improve nutrition? An empirical analysis of India’s public distribution system. Economic Development and Cultural Change 203–235.Google Scholar
  22. Kumar, A., Bantilan, M. C. S., Kumar, P., Kumar, S., & Jee, S. (2012). Food security in India: Trends, patterns and determinants. Indian Journal Agricultural Economics, 67(3), 445–463.Google Scholar
  23. Kumar, R. C. (2014, November 14). For a public policy road map. The Hindu.Google Scholar
  24. Lahoti, R., & Reddy, S. G. (2010, July 28). Right to Food Act: Essential but inadequate. The Hindu.Google Scholar
  25. Nakamura, R. T. (1987) The text book policy process and implantation research. Review of Policy Research 142–154.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.1987.tb00034.x.
  26. Omano, S. (2004). Bridging research, policy, and practice in african agriculture. IFPRI Discussion Paper.Google Scholar
  27. Ostrom, E. (2011). Background on the institutional analysis and development framework. Policy Studies Journal, 39, 7–27.Google Scholar
  28. Pal, B. (2011). Organization and working of public distribution system in India: A critical analysis. International Journal of Buiess Economics and Management Research.Google Scholar
  29. Resnick, D., Babu, S. C., Haggblade, S., Hendriks, S., & Mather, D. (2015). Conceptualizing drivers of policy change in agriculture, nutrtion, and food security: The kaleidoscope model. IFPRI Discussion Paper 1414. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).Google Scholar
  30. Right to Food Campaign. (n.d.). Right to food Campaign. http://www.righttofoodcampaign.in/about.
  31. Sabatier, P. A. (2007). Theories of the policy process. West View Press.Google Scholar
  32. Sanyal, K. (2016, April 28). The four key principles of policy making process in India. Linkedin. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/four-key-principles-policy-making-process-india-kaushiki-sanyal.
  33. Sharma, Lalit, & Megha, Vashishth. (2017). Level of deprivation in standard of living in India—A state-wise analysis. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 4(6), 433–439.Google Scholar
  34. Smith, T. B. (1973). The policy implementation process. Policy Sciences 197–209.Google Scholar
  35. Stone, D. (2002). The delemmas of “Baridgnening research and policy. Compare 285–296.Google Scholar
  36. Tanksale, A., & Jha, J. K. (2015). Implementing National Food Security Act in India: Issues and challenges. British Food Journal.Google Scholar
  37. The National Food security Act. (2013). The Gazette of India. Ministry of Law and Justice. http://lawmin.nic.in/ld/P-ACT/2013/The%20National%20Food%20Security%20Act,%202013.pdf.
  38. The World Bank. World Development Indicators. (2018). Washington DC.: World Bank. Available at: https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/world-development-indicators.
  39. The World Bank Group. (2015). The state of social safety nets 2015. Washington DC.Google Scholar
  40. United Nations. (1974). Report of the world food confernce. New York.Google Scholar
  41. United Nations. (2015). Sustainable development goals. New York.Google Scholar
  42. USAID (United States Agency for International Development). (2013). Feed the future guide to supporting sound policy enabling environments. Washington, DC: USAID.Google Scholar
  43. Virmani, A. (2007). The Sudoku of growth, poverty and malnutrition: Policy implications for lagging states (Working Paper No. 2/2007 - PC Planning Commission), 43(2).Google Scholar
  44. World Food Programme. (2018). Achieving zero hunger: WFP in India. New Delhi: World Food Programme. Available at: https://docs.wfp.org/api/documents/WFP-0000063744/download/?_ga=2.61553071.2013814992.1588865942-1354464062.1588865942.
  45. Yu, Wusheng, Elleby, Christian, & Henrik, Zobbe. (2015). Food security policies in India and China: Implications for national and global food security. Food Security.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0432-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suresh Chandra Babu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Namita Paul
    • 1
  • Anjani Kumar
    • 3
  1. 1.International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)WashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Agricultural EconomicsUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations