Liquefaction Behavior of Dense Sand Relating to the Degree of Saturation

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 62)


This paper aims to study the behaviour of dense RF Hostun sand subjected to dynamic loading in the triaxial cell. The wet tamping method was used to prepare the samples with the same initial conditions including water content and void ratio. The samples were firstly saturated to dissolve the remaining air bubbles inside the samples. After that, all the samples were consolidated isotropically then the cyclic deviator stress was applied to study liquefaction. All tests show that, saturation affects significantly to the cyclic stress ratio needed to liquefy the sample. The samples having an equal degree of saturation were liquefied by the same level of deviator stress; however, there is a great difference in the load cycles causing liquefaction. This consequence suggests that besides the void ratio and the saturation degree, the different soil fabrics (caused by sample preparation technique) can effect on the sand liquefaction susceptibility and as well the triggering time of liquefaction in situ or in the laboratory.


Hostun RF sand Skempton parameter B liquefaction unsaturation cyclic loading 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We would like to express special thanks to professors Jean Marie FLEUREAU, Mahdia HATTAB, and Hanene SOULI for their support and consultancy during the implementation of this research.


  1. Arab, A., Sadek, M., Benkhatir, M. (2016). Saturation Effect on Behavior of Sandy Soil Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading: A Laboratory Investigation. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.Google Scholar
  2. Benahmed, N. (2001). Comportement mécanique d’un sable sous cisaillement monotone et cyclique : application aux phénomènes de liquéfaction et de mobilité cyclique. Thèses doctoral.Google Scholar
  3. Castro, G. (1969). Liquefaction of sands. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  4. Chaney, R.C. (1978). Saturation effects on the cyclic strength of sands. Proc., ASCE Special Conf. on Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, ASCE, New York, 342–359Google Scholar
  5. Della, N., Arab, A., Belkhatir, M. (2011). Static liquefaction of sandy soil: an experimental investigation into the effects of saturation and initial state. Acta Mech 218(1–2):175–186Google Scholar
  6. Fourie, A., Hofmann, B., Mikula, R., Lord, E., and Robertson, P. (2001). Partially saturated tailings sand below the phreatic surface. Geotechnique, 51(7), 577–585.Google Scholar
  7. Iwasaki T. (1986). Soil liquefaction studies in Japan (a state of art). Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 5(1): 2-68.
  8. Jefferies, M., Been, K. 2016. Soil liquefaction – a critical state approach. CRC press book. Taylo and Francis Group, 472.Google Scholar
  9. Mullilis, J.P., Townsend, F.C., Horz, R.C. (1978). Triaxial testing techniques and sand liquefaction. ASTM STP 654 Dyn Geotech Test, 265–279Google Scholar
  10. Seed, H.B., Idriss, I.M. (1982). Ground motion and soil liquefaction during earthquake, Berkeley, University of California.Google Scholar
  11. Tsukamoto, Y., Kawabe, S., Matsumoto, J., Hagiwara, S. (2014). Cyclic resistance of two unsaturated silty sands against soil liquefaction. Soils and Foundations.Google Scholar
  12. Tran, K.H., Imanzadeh, S., Taibi, S., Souli, H., Fleufeau, J.M., Bouchemelia, S., Pantet, A. (2018). Cyclic behavior of unsaturated Hostun sand. 4th International Conference Unsaturated Soils & Sustainable Construction UNSAT, Oran – Algeria.Google Scholar
  13. Tran, K.H., Imanzadeh, S., Taibi, S., Souli, H., Fleufeau, J.M., Pantet, A. (2018). Some aspects of the cyclic behavior of quasi-saturated sand. 36èmes Rencontres Universitaires de Génie Civil de l’AUGC. France.Google Scholar
  14. Yoshimi, Y., Tanaka, K., and Tokimatsu, K. (1989). Liquefaction resistance of partially saturated sand. Soils Found, 29(3), 157–162.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Normandie Univ, UNIHAVRE, CNRS, LOMCLe HavreFrance
  2. 2.Normandie Univ, INSA Rouen NormandieLe HavreFrance
  3. 3.University of Transport and CommunicationsHanoiVietnam

Personalised recommendations