Understanding Colorectal Cancer: The Basics

  • Mohan Krishna Ghanta
  • Santosh C. Gursale
  • L. V. K. S. Bhaskar
Part of the Diagnostics and Therapeutic Advances in GI Malignancies book series (DTAGIM)


Among all cancers, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer. Colorectal cancer is associated with various risk factors which may alter the physiological pathways and induce genetic mutations. The risk factors, genetic variations, gene related toxicities with treatment regimens of CRC, clinically relevant biomarker of CRC were discussed in this review. The aim of the present review is to provide a current update on the risk factors and their pathways, biomarkers and their association with treatment efficacy and toxicity in CRC, which may provide a view for the Precision Medicine in CRC.


Colorectal cancer Epidemiology Risk factors Biomarkers Toxicities 


18q LOH

Chromosome 18q loss of heterozygosity




ATP-dependent translocase/drug transporter gene family


Protein kinase B


Anti epidermal growth factor receptor


Anti Vascular endothelial growth factor


Adenomatous polyposis coli


Mononucleotide microsatellite


Mononucleotide microsatellite


B-cell lymphoma-extra large


Body mass index


Gene encoding b-raf protein


Cytidine deaminase


CpG island hypermethylation


Chromosomal instability


Proto oncogene


Colorectal cancer


C-reactive protein

cyclin D1

cyclin D1


Deoxyribo nucleic acid


Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase


Epithelial to mesenchymal transition


Antisense RNA to thymidylate synthase


Epithelial cell adhesion molecule


Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2




Focal adhesion kinase


Familial adenomatous polyposis


Fos-related antigen 1




Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta




Histone acetyl transferase


Histone deacetylase


High mobility group box 1 protein


Telomerase reverse transcriptase










Janus kinase




K-Ras protein


Mitogen activated protein kinase


Antiapoptotic protein of Bcl2 family


micro RNA


MutL homolog 1


Mononucleotide microsatellite


MutS protein homolog 2


MutS Homolog 6


Microsatellite instability


Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase


methylated VIMENTIN


Laminin-related secreted protein


Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells


NOD-like receptor family pyrin6


Nitric oxide synthase


Mononucleotide microsatellite


Mononucleotide microsatellite


Tumor protein 53


Sub unit of NF-κB


Proliferating cell nuclear antigen


Polymerase chain reaction


PMS1 Homolog 2

Pol δ

DNA polymerase δ


Phosphatase and tensin homolog


Ras proteim


Reduced folate carrier


Reactive oxygen species


Socio-economic status


Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4


Signal transducer and activator of transcription3


Serine/threonine kinase 11


T helper cell17


Tumor necrosing factor α


Tumor necrosing factor


Tumor necrosing factorβ


Tumor protein 53


Regulatory T cells


Tumor-associated calcium signal transduction protein


Thymidylate synthase


Ulcerative colitis


UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1


United States of America


Vascular endothelial growth factor


Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2


World Health Organisation


Wingless (wg) and Int-1, traits


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohan Krishna Ghanta
    • 1
  • Santosh C. Gursale
    • 2
  • L. V. K. S. Bhaskar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, SRIHER-(DU), PorurChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, BKL Walawalkar Rural Medical College, Kasarwadi, SawardeRatnagiriIndia
  3. 3.Guru Ghasidas UniversityBilaspurIndia

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