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Understanding Colorectal Cancer: The Basics

  • Mohan Krishna Ghanta
  • Santosh C. Gursale
  • L. V. K. S. Bhaskar
Chapter
  • 36 Downloads
Part of the Diagnostics and Therapeutic Advances in GI Malignancies book series (DTAGIM)

Abstract

Among all cancers, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer. Colorectal cancer is associated with various risk factors which may alter the physiological pathways and induce genetic mutations. The risk factors, genetic variations, gene related toxicities with treatment regimens of CRC, clinically relevant biomarker of CRC were discussed in this review. The aim of the present review is to provide a current update on the risk factors and their pathways, biomarkers and their association with treatment efficacy and toxicity in CRC, which may provide a view for the Precision Medicine in CRC.

Keywords

Colorectal cancer Epidemiology Risk factors Biomarkers Toxicities 

Abbreviations

18q LOH

Chromosome 18q loss of heterozygosity

5-FU

5-fluorouracil

ABCB1

ATP-dependent translocase/drug transporter gene family

AKT

Protein kinase B

Anti-EGFR

Anti epidermal growth factor receptor

Anti-VEGF

Anti Vascular endothelial growth factor

APC

Adenomatous polyposis coli

BAT-25

Mononucleotide microsatellite

BAT-26

Mononucleotide microsatellite

Bcl-xl

B-cell lymphoma-extra large

BMI

Body mass index

BRAF

Gene encoding b-raf protein

CDA

Cytidine deaminase

CIMP

CpG island hypermethylation

CIN

Chromosomal instability

cmyc

Proto oncogene

CRC

Colorectal cancer

CRP

C-reactive protein

cyclin D1

cyclin D1

DNA

Deoxyribo nucleic acid

DPYD

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase

EMT

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition

ENOSF1

Antisense RNA to thymidylate synthase

EPCAM

Epithelial cell adhesion molecule

ERK1/2

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2

ExoI

Exonuclease1

FAK

Focal adhesion kinase

FAP

Familial adenomatous polyposis

FRA1

Fos-related antigen 1

gp130

Glycoprotein130

GSK3B

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta

Gy

Gray

HAT

Histone acetyl transferase

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

HMGB1

High mobility group box 1 protein

hTERT

Telomerase reverse transcriptase

IL10

Interleukin10

IL-17F

Interleukin-17F

IL6

Interleukin6

IL6R

Interleukin6R

JAK

Janus kinase

K116

Lysine116

KRAS

K-Ras protein

MAPK

Mitogen activated protein kinase

mcl1

Antiapoptotic protein of Bcl2 family

miRNA

micro RNA

MLH1

MutL homolog 1

MONO-27

Mononucleotide microsatellite

MSH2

MutS protein homolog 2

MSH6

MutS Homolog 6

MSI

Microsatellite instability

MTHFR

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

mVim

methylated VIMENTIN

NETRIN-1

Laminin-related secreted protein

NF-KB

Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

Nlrp6

NOD-like receptor family pyrin6

NOS

Nitric oxide synthase

NR-21

Mononucleotide microsatellite

NR-24

Mononucleotide microsatellite

p53

Tumor protein 53

p65

Sub unit of NF-κB

PCNA

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PMS2

PMS1 Homolog 2

Pol δ

DNA polymerase δ

PTEN

Phosphatase and tensin homolog

Ras

Ras proteim

RFC

Reduced folate carrier

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SES

Socio-economic status

SMAD4

Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4

STAT3

Signal transducer and activator of transcription3

STK11

Serine/threonine kinase 11

Th17

T helper cell17

TNF α

Tumor necrosing factor α

TNF

Tumor necrosing factor

TNFβ

Tumor necrosing factorβ

TP53

Tumor protein 53

Treg

Regulatory T cells

TROP-2

Tumor-associated calcium signal transduction protein

TYMS

Thymidylate synthase

UC

Ulcerative colitis

UGT1A1

UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1

USA

United States of America

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VEGR2

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2

WHO

World Health Organisation

Wnt

Wingless (wg) and Int-1, traits

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohan Krishna Ghanta
    • 1
  • Santosh C. Gursale
    • 2
  • L. V. K. S. Bhaskar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, SRIHER-(DU), PorurChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, BKL Walawalkar Rural Medical College, Kasarwadi, SawardeRatnagiriIndia
  3. 3.Guru Ghasidas UniversityBilaspurIndia

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