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Therapeutic Role of Phytochemicals in Colorectal Cancer

  • Begum Dariya
  • Balney Rajitha
  • Afroz Alam
  • Ganji Purnachandra NagarajuEmail author
Chapter
  • 34 Downloads
Part of the Diagnostics and Therapeutic Advances in GI Malignancies book series (DTAGIM)

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the universal disease of gastrointestine that has become a common health problem globally and is the principal reason for high mortality and morbidity rate worldwide. The novel conventional therapies including radio and chemotherapy have limitations like developing toxicity in healthy cells and bring about adverse side effects. Poor diet habits and modern life style are the major obstacles determined as the risk for CRC and developing a healthy diet habit and lifestyle may reduce the risk. However studies from epidemiology suggested that fruits and vegetables possess high content of phytochemicals and including them in daily diet would effectively reduce the risk of cancers related to digestive system including colorectal cancer. These natural products possess diverse pharmacological bioactivities and are thus widely explored now as novel agents. Their nontoxic nature and cytotoxicity features make the researchers perform immense research to develop novel drugs against various cancers including pancreatic, breast and colorectal cancer. It was evidenced from in vitro and in vivo, that the phytochemicals are strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidants, and anti-cancer agents showing their activity by controlling various signalling pathways that promote proliferation, survival, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis of CRC cells by down regulating and up regulating various proteins involved in these pathways.

Keywords

Colorectal cancer Phytochemicals Polyphenols Flavonoids Isoflavones and cytotoxicity 

Abbreviations

5-FU

Fluorouracil

ACF

Aberrant crypt foci

Akt

Alpha serine/threonine—protein kinase

AMPK

Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase

AOM

Azoxymethane

APC

Adenomatous polyposis coli

Bax

Bcl-2 associated X protein

Bcl-2

B-cell lymphoma

BPIS

Bound polyphenols of inner shell

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CDK

Cyclin dependent kinase

cIAP

Cellular inhibitors of apoptotic protein

CIMP

CpG island methylator phenotype

CIN

Chromosomal instability

COLO320DM

Colon adenocarcinoma cell lines

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase

CRC

Colorectal cancer

CREB1

cAMP response element binding protein 1

CSC

Cancer stem cells

DiYu

Sanguisorba officinalis

DMH

1,2-dimethyl hydrazine

DNMT

DNA methyltransferase

EA

Ellagic acid

EG

Ellagitannins

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor

EMT

Epithelial mesenchymal transition

ERK

Extracellular signal regulated kinase

ER-β

Estrogen receptor

FDA

Food and drug administration

FOLFOX

Oxaliplatin (Made of folinic acid/chemodrug)

FOXO3

Forkhead box protein O3

Gli

Glioma associated oncogene

Grp78

Glucose regulator protein

GST

Glutathione S transferases

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease

IGF

Insulin growth factor1

IL-6

Interleukin

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

LOX

Lipoxygenase

MAPK

Mitogen activated protein kinase

MC37

Mono-carbonyl curcumin analogue

MEK1

Mitogen activated protein kinase

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

mPEG

PCL methoxy poly ethylene glycol poly caprolactone

MRP1

Multidrug resistance protein 1

mTOR

Mechanistic target of rapamycin

MUC2

Mucin-2 precursor

NF-κB

Nuclear factor kappa B

NKd2

Naked cuticle 2

NQO1

NADPH quinine oxidoreductase 1

Nrf2

Nuclear factor eryhthroid-2 p45-related factor 2

OCTN2

Organic cation or carnitine transported 2

PARP

Poly ADP ribose polymerase

p-CA

P-Coumaric acid

PCNA

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen

PDK4

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase4

PI3K

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

PPAR γ

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ

Ptch

Patch homolog

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SFRP2

Secreted frizzled-related protein 2

SGK1

Serine threonine protein kinase

Smo

Smoothened

STAT3

Signal transducers and activators of transcription

tCA

Trans form of cinnamic acid

TGF-β1

Transforming growth factor β

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor

TOPK

T-cell originated protein kinase

uPA

Urokinase type plasminogen activator

UPR

Unfolded protein response

WIF1

Wnt inhibitory factor1

XIAP

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Begum Dariya
    • 1
  • Balney Rajitha
    • 1
  • Afroz Alam
    • 1
  • Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Bioscience and BiotechnologyBanasthali UniversityVanasthaliIndia
  2. 2.Department of Hematology and Medical OncologyWinship Cancer Institute, Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA

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