Advertisement

Clinical Relevance of “Biomarkers” in Cancer Metabolism

  • Niraj Kumar JhaEmail author
  • Saurabh Kumar Jha
  • Ankur Sharma
  • Rahul Yadav
  • Pratibha Pandey
  • Kavindra Kumar Kesari
  • Neeraj Kumar
  • Parma Nand
  • Mansi Agrahari
  • Nancy Sanjay Gupta
Chapter

Abstract

Nowadays, the field of biomarker discovery has become the topic of vivid research with the current emergence of novel technologies. Major progress in cancer control will be significantly aided by early detection for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in its preinvasive state. Cancer being a diverse disease involves mutations in mostly three classes of genes such as oncogenes (proto-oncogenes), DNA repair genes, and tumor suppressor genes, presenting a wide range of opportunities for the development and formulation of various cancer biomarkers. Cancer biomarkers are used to follow up disease process before it becomes more severe and help in screening, thus greatly aid in cancer diagnosis and treatment. They also act as biochemical indicators to show the evidence of the presence of a tumor. There are various types of tumor biomarkers, which are classified on the basis of their functionalities. For instance, tumor diagnostic markers aid in predicting the occurrence of tumor during diagnosis, while tumor prognostic markers are clinical measures used to assist in bringing out an individual patients risk of a future consequence including disease reoccurrence after primary treatment. Similarly, various biomarkers are accountable for serving as a potential biochemical indicator to examine the processes of disease progression and help in disease diagnosis. However, the precise roles of cancer biomarkers in contributing to examine the cancer progression remain uncertain. This chapter therefore recapitulates about the recent findings of current and emerging biomarkers in cancer with fundamental insight into different markers used in cancer detection. Further, biomarkers based on these strategies may lead to remarkable improvement in cancer screening, prognosis, and management of therapeutic response in cancer patients.

Keywords

Cancer Biomarkers Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) Micro RNAs (miRNAs) Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Therapeutics 

References

  1. Abelev GI (1971) Alpha-fetoprotein in ontogenesis and its association with malignant tumors. Adv Cancer Res 14:295–358PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Alaoui-Jamali MA, Xu YJ (2006) Proteomic technology for biomarker profiling in cancer: an update. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 7(6):411–420PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bao S, Wu Q, McLendon RE, Hao Y, Shi Q, Hjelmeland AB, Dewhirst MW, Bigner DD, Rich JN (2006) Glioma stem cells promote radioresistance by preferential activation of the DNA damage response. Nature 444(7120):756–760PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhatt AN, Mathur R, Farooque A, Verma A, Dwarakanath BS (2010) Cancer biomarkers – current perspectives. Indian J Med Res 132:129–149PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bishop JM (1987) The molecular genetics of cancer. Science 235:305–311PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Căinap C, Nagy V, Gherman A, Cetean S, Laszlo I, Constantin AM, Căinap S (2015) Classic tumor markers in gastric cancer. Current standards and limitations. Clujul Med 88(2):111–115PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Casetta G, Piana P, Cavallini A, Vottero M, Tizzani A (1993) Urinary levels of tumor associated antigens (CA 19-9, TPA and CEA) in patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic urothelial abnormalities. Br J Urol 72:60–64PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Chatterjee SK, Zetter BR (2005) Cancer biomarkers: knowing the present and predicting the future. Future Oncol 1(1):37–50PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen X, Ba Y, Ma L, Cai X, Yin Y, Wang K, Guo J, Zhang Y, Chen J, Guo X, Li Q, Li X, Wang W, Zhang Y, Wang J, Jiang X, Xiang Y, Xu C, Zheng P, Zhang J, Li R, Zhang H, Shang X, Gong T, Ning G, Wang J, Zen K, Zhang J, Zhang CY (2008) Characterization of microRNAs in serum: a novel class of biomarkers for diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. Cell Res 18(10):997–1006PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen CJ, Wang LY, Yu MW (2000) Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in the Asia-Pacific region. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15(Suppl):E3–E6PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Chisari FV, Isogawa M, Wieland SF (2010) Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection. Pathol Biol (Paris) 58(4):258–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ciocca DR, Stuart K (2005) Calderwood heat shock proteins in cancer:diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and treatment implications. Cell Stress Chaperones 10:86–103PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cole LA (1997) Immunoassay of human chorionic gonadotropin, its free subunits, and metabolites. Clin Chem 43:2233–2243PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Dang CV, Semenza GL (1999) Oncogenic alterations of metabolism. Trends Biochem Sci 24:8–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Daniels GA, Sanchez-Perez L, Diaz RM, Kottke T, Thompson J, Lia M et al (2004) A simple method to cure established tumors by inflammatory killing of normal cells. Nat Biotechnol 22:1125–1132PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Dunning AM, Healey CS, Pharoah PDP, Teare DM, Ponder BAJ, Easton DF (1999) A systematic review of genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8:843–854PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Dwarakanath BS, Manogaran PS, Das S, Das BS, Jain V (1994) Heterogeneity in DNA content and proliferative status of human brain tumors. Indian J Med Res 100:279–286Google Scholar
  18. Eissa S (1999) Tumor markers. Lippincot Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Garg A, Ahmed S, Sinha A, Singh HP (2015) Tumor markers – its advantages and limitations in diagnosis of oral cancer. Univ J Dent Sci 1:42–45Google Scholar
  20. Gold P, Freeman SO (1965) Demonstration of tumor-specific antigens in human colonic carcinoma by immunological tolerance and absorption techniques. J Exp Med 121:439–462PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hall C, Valad L, Lucci A (2016) Circulating tumor cells in breast cancer patients. Crit Rev Oncog 21(1–2):125–139PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Hanahan D, Weinberg RA (2000) The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 100(1):57–70PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Isgrò MA, Bottoni P, Scatena R (2015) Neuron-specific enolase as a biomarker: biochemical and clinical aspects. Adv Exp Med Biol 867:125–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jakupciak JP, Wang W, Markowitz ME, Ally D, Coble M, Srivastava S et al (2005) Mitochondrial DNA as a cancer biomarker. J Mol Diagn 7:258–267PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Khan MS, Chaouachi K, Mahmood R (2008) Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers. Harm Reduct J 5:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim JW, Tchernyshyov I, Semenza GL, Dang CV (2006) HIF-1-mediated expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase: a metabolic switch required for cellular adaptation to hypoxia. Cell Metab 3:177–185PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Kirk GD, Bah E, Montesano R (2006) Molecular epidemiology of human liver cancer: insights into etiology, pathogenesis and prevention from The Gambia, West Africa. Carcinogenesis 27(10):2070–2082PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Koprowski H, Steplewski Z, Mitchell K, Herlyn M, Herlyn D, Fuhrer P (1979) Colorectal carcinoma antigens detected by hybridoma antibodies. Somatic Cell Genet 5:957–971PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Kurtzman J, Wilson H, Rao CV (2001) A proposed role for hCG in clinical obstetrics. Semin Reprod Med 19:63–68PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Maitra A, Cohen Y, Gillespie SE, Mambo E, Fukushima N, Hoque MO et al (2004) The Human MitoChip: a highthroughput sequencing microarray for mitochondrial mutation detection. Genome Res 14:812–819PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matsumoto M, Komiyama K, Okaue M, Shimoyama Y, Iwakami K, Namaki S, Tanaka H, Moro I, Sato H (1999) Predicting tumor metastasis in patients with oral cancer by means of the proliferation marker Ki67. J Oral Sci 41(2):53–56PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Mazzaferri EL, Robbins RJ, Spencer CA, Braverman LE, Pacini F, Wartofsky L, Haugen BR, Sherman SI, Cooper DS, Braunstein GD, Lee S, Davies TF, Arafah BM, Ladenson PW, Pinchera A (2003) A consensus report of the role of serum thyroglobulin as a monitoring method for low-risk patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88(4):1433–1441PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Mitchell PS, Parkin RK, Kroh EM, Fritz BR, Wyman SK, Pogosova-Agadjanyan EL, Peterson A, Noteboom J, O’Briant KC, Allen A, Lin DW, Urban N, Drescher CW, Knudsen BS, Stirewalt DL, Gentleman R, Vessella RL, Nelson PS, Martin DB, Tewari M (2017) Circulating microRNAs as stable blood-based markers for cancer detection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(30):10513–10518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nagpal M, Singh S, Singh P, Chauhan P, Zaidi MA (2016) Tumor markers: a diagnostic tool. Natl J Maxillofac Surg 7(1):17–20PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pellino G, Gallo G, Pallante P, Capasso R, De Stefano A, Maretto I, Malapelle U, Qiu S, Nikolaou S, Barina A, Clerico G, Reginelli A, Giuliani A, Sciaudone G, Kontovounisios C, Brunese L, Trompetto M, Selvaggi F (2018) Noninvasive biomarkers of colorectal cancer: role in diagnosis and personalised treatment perspectives. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2018:2397863PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pinashi-Kimhi O, Michalowitz D, Ben-Zeev A, Oren M (1986) Specific interaction between the p53 cellular tumour antigen and major heat shock proteins. Nature 320:182–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Poveda A, Kaye SB, McCormack R, Wang S, Parekh T, Ricci D, Lebedinsky CA, Tercero JC, Zintl P, Monk BJ (2011) Circulating tumor cells predict progression free survival and overall survival in patients with relapsed/recurrent advanced ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 122(3):567–572PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Puglisi F, Fontanella C, Numico G, Sini V, Evangelista L, Monetti F, Gori S, Del Mastro L (2014) Follow-up of patients with early breast cancer: is it time to rewrite the story? Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 91(2):130–141PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Saxena S, Sankhla B, Sundaragiri KS, Bhargava A (2017) A review of salivary biomarker: a tool for early oral cancer diagnosis. Adv Biomed Res 6:90PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schreiber TH (2007) The use of FoxP3 as a biomarker and prognostic factor for malignant human tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 16(10):1931–1934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sharma S (2009) Tumor markers in clinical practice: general principles and guidelines. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol 30(1):1–8PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Singh SK, Hawkins C, Clarke ID, Squire JA, Bayani J, Hide T, Henkelman RM, Cusimano MD, Dirks PB (2004) Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells. Nature 432(7015):396–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sotiriou C, Lothaire P, Dequanter D, Cardoso F, Awada A (2004) Molecular profiling of head and neck tumors. Curr Opin Oncol 16(3):211–214PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Stephan C, Jung K, Diamandis EP, Rittenhouse HG, Lein M, Loening SA (2002) Prostate-specific antigen, its molecular forms, and other kallikrein markers for detection of prostate cancer. Urology 59(1):2–8PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Toru H, Masaharu Y, Shinji T, Kazuaki C (2008) Genetic polymorphisms and head and neck cancer risk. Int J Oncol 32:945–973Google Scholar
  46. Virji MA, Mercer DW, Herberman RB (1988) Tumor markers in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. CA Cancer J Clin 38(2):104–126PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang JY, Lu CY, Chu KS, Ma CJ, Wu DC, Tsai HL, Yu FJ, Hsieh JS (2007) Prognostic significance of pre- and postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels in patients with colorectal cancer. Eur Surg Res 39(4):245–250PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Warburg O (1956) On the origin of cancer cells. Science 123:309–314PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Whitfield ML, George LK, Grant GD, Perou CM (2006) Common markers of proliferation. Nat Rev Cancer 6:99–106PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Zarbo RJ, Nakhleh RE, Brown RD, Kubus JJ, Ma CK (2000) Prognostic significance of DNA ploidy and proliferation in 309 colorectal carcinomas as determined by two-color multiparametric DNA flow cytometry. Cancer 79:2073–2086CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niraj Kumar Jha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Saurabh Kumar Jha
    • 1
  • Ankur Sharma
    • 2
  • Rahul Yadav
    • 2
  • Pratibha Pandey
    • 3
  • Kavindra Kumar Kesari
    • 4
  • Neeraj Kumar
    • 5
  • Parma Nand
    • 1
  • Mansi Agrahari
    • 2
  • Nancy Sanjay Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering & TechnologySharda UniversityGreater NoidaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Life Science, School of Basic Science and Research (SBSR)Sharda UniversityGreater NoidaIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiotechnologyNoida Institute of Engineering & Technology (NIET)Greater NoidaIndia
  4. 4.Department of Applied PhysicsAalto UniversityEspooFinland
  5. 5.Department of ChemistrySRM UniversityModi NagarIndia

Personalised recommendations