Clinical Relevance of “Biomarkers” in Cancer Metabolism

  • Niraj Kumar JhaEmail author
  • Saurabh Kumar Jha
  • Ankur Sharma
  • Rahul Yadav
  • Pratibha Pandey
  • Kavindra Kumar Kesari
  • Neeraj Kumar
  • Parma Nand
  • Mansi Agrahari
  • Nancy Sanjay Gupta


Nowadays, the field of biomarker discovery has become the topic of vivid research with the current emergence of novel technologies. Major progress in cancer control will be significantly aided by early detection for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in its preinvasive state. Cancer being a diverse disease involves mutations in mostly three classes of genes such as oncogenes (proto-oncogenes), DNA repair genes, and tumor suppressor genes, presenting a wide range of opportunities for the development and formulation of various cancer biomarkers. Cancer biomarkers are used to follow up disease process before it becomes more severe and help in screening, thus greatly aid in cancer diagnosis and treatment. They also act as biochemical indicators to show the evidence of the presence of a tumor. There are various types of tumor biomarkers, which are classified on the basis of their functionalities. For instance, tumor diagnostic markers aid in predicting the occurrence of tumor during diagnosis, while tumor prognostic markers are clinical measures used to assist in bringing out an individual patients risk of a future consequence including disease reoccurrence after primary treatment. Similarly, various biomarkers are accountable for serving as a potential biochemical indicator to examine the processes of disease progression and help in disease diagnosis. However, the precise roles of cancer biomarkers in contributing to examine the cancer progression remain uncertain. This chapter therefore recapitulates about the recent findings of current and emerging biomarkers in cancer with fundamental insight into different markers used in cancer detection. Further, biomarkers based on these strategies may lead to remarkable improvement in cancer screening, prognosis, and management of therapeutic response in cancer patients.


Cancer Biomarkers Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) Micro RNAs (miRNAs) Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Therapeutics 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niraj Kumar Jha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Saurabh Kumar Jha
    • 1
  • Ankur Sharma
    • 2
  • Rahul Yadav
    • 2
  • Pratibha Pandey
    • 3
  • Kavindra Kumar Kesari
    • 4
  • Neeraj Kumar
    • 5
  • Parma Nand
    • 1
  • Mansi Agrahari
    • 2
  • Nancy Sanjay Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering & TechnologySharda UniversityGreater NoidaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Life Science, School of Basic Science and Research (SBSR)Sharda UniversityGreater NoidaIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiotechnologyNoida Institute of Engineering & Technology (NIET)Greater NoidaIndia
  4. 4.Department of Applied PhysicsAalto UniversityEspooFinland
  5. 5.Department of ChemistrySRM UniversityModi NagarIndia

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