Development of Sustainable Cementitious Binder Utilizing Silicomanganese Fumes

  • Syed Khaja NajamuddinEmail author
  • Megat Azmi Megat Johari
  • Mohammed Maslehuddin
  • Moruf Olalekan Yusuf
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 169)


Sustainable alkali activated mortar was developed in this study utilizing silicomanganese (SiMn) fume. SiMn fume is an industrial by-product produced during the production of SiMn alloy by carbothermic reduction. SiO2, MnO2 and K2O are the major constituents of SiMn fume. The precursor material was activated by varied concentration of NaOH (4M, 8M and 12M) and constant Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 2.5. Alkali activated SiMn fume mortars were cured at room temperature (23 ± 2 °C) and the maximum compressive strength of 36 MPa was achieved at a concentration of 12M NaOH. Influence of dissolution of SiMn fume with a change in NaOH concentration can be observed from the results of setting time, flow and compressive strength. Flow and compressive strength increased with an increase in the concentration of NaOH. SiMn fume can be utilized as a precursor material to develop a sustainable alkali activated cementitious binder.


Sustainable binder Na2SiO3 NaOH Alkali activated mortar Room temperature curing 



Authors acknowledge the support provided by Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia, in conducting the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Khaja Najamuddin
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Megat Azmi Megat Johari
    • 1
  • Mohammed Maslehuddin
    • 3
  • Moruf Olalekan Yusuf
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Center for Engineering Research, Research InstituteKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Hafr al BatinHafr al BatinSaudi Arabia

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