History and Culture of Indian Ethnic Fermented Foods and Beverages

  • Jyoti Prakash Tamang


“भारत” (Bharat) has one of the oldest civilizations in the world with vast history, food culture, bio-resources, ethnicity, and customs. Ethnic food has a cultural connotation in India and is linked to diverse ethnicity which represents the traits of wisdom and knowledge of ancient Indian people on culinary and also on the right choice of “bioactively enriched balance diets” since Rig Vedic period. Diversity of Indian fermented foods and beverages is related to diversity of ethnicity with unparalleled food culture of each community. More than 350 types of major and region-specific ethnic fermented foods and alcoholic beverages are produced either naturally or by adding mixed starter cultures using indigenous knowledge of food fermentation in India. Diversity of microorganisms ranges from mycelia fungi to enzyme-producing to alcohol-producing yeasts and Gram-positive and few Gram-negative bacteria with several functional properties. Functional microorganisms play important roles in the traditional fermentation processes by their functional properties enhancing several health-promoting benefits to the consumers such as bio-preservation of perishable foods, bio-enrichment of nutritional value, protective properties, bioavailability of minerals, production of antioxidants, antimicrobial activities, non-production of biogenic amines, and probiotics properties. Microbial diversity in ethnic fermented foods contributes significant genetic resources due to diverse food cultures of the multiethnic groups of people in India. It has been noticed that consumption of few uncommon ethnic foods is declining in many states of India due to change in life style, shifting from cultural food habit to commercial foods and fast foods affecting drastically the traditional culinary practices, and also due to climate change in some places.


Food culture Indian ethnic foods Fermented foods History of foods 


  1. Aarti C, Khusro A, Arasu MV, Agastian P, Al-Dhabi NA (2016) Biological potency and characterization of antibacterial substances produced by Lactobacillus pentosus isolated from Hentak, a fermented fish product of North-East India. Springerplus 5:1743. Scholar
  2. Aarti C, Khusro A, Varghese R, Arasu MV, Agastian P, Al-Dhabi NA, Ilavenil S, Choi KC (2017) In vitro studies on probiotic and antioxidant properties of Lactobacillus brevis strain LAP2 isolated from Hentak, a fermented fish product of North-East India. LWT—Food Sci Technol 86:438–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdhul K, Ganesh M, Shanmughapriya S, Kanagavel M, Anbarasu K, Natarajaseenivasan K (2014) Antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide from probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium (BDU7) from Ngari. Int J Biol Macromol 70:450–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Achaya KT (1991) Alcoholic fermentation and its products in ancient India. Indian J Hist Sci 26(2):123–129Google Scholar
  5. Achaya KT (1994) Indian food: a historical companion. Oxford University Press, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  6. Achaya KT (1998) A historical dictionary of Indian food. Oxford University Press, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  7. Achaya KT (2003) The story of our food. Oxford University Press, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  8. Achaya KT (2009) The illustrated foods of India. Oxford University Press, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  9. Adhikari RR, Ghimirey H (2000) Nepalese society and culture. Vidharthi Pushtak Bhandar, Kathmandu (Nepali)Google Scholar
  10. Agaliya JP, Jeevaratnam K (2013) Molecular characterization of lactobacilli isolated from fermented idli batter. Braz J Microbiol 44:1199–1206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Agarwal KN, Bhasin SK (2002) Feasibility studies to control acute diarrhea in children by feeding fermented milk preparations actimel and Indian Dahi. Eur J Clin Nutr 56:S56–S59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Angmo K, Bhalla TC (2014) Preparation of Phabs—an indigenous starter culture for production of traditional alcoholic beverage, Chhang, in Ladakh. Indian J Tradit Knowl 13:347–351Google Scholar
  13. Anupma A, Pradhan P, Sha SP, Tamang JP (2018) Traditional skill of ethnic people of the Eastern Himalayas and North East India in preserving microbiota as dry amylolytic starters. Indian J Tradit Knowl 17(1):184–190Google Scholar
  14. Balamurugan R, Chandragunasekaran AS, Chellappan G, Rajaram K, Ramamoorthi G, Ramakrishna BS (2014) Probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria present in home made curd in southern India. Indian J Med Res 140(3):345–355PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Basappa SC (2002) Investigations on Chhang form finger millet (Eleucine coracana Gaertn.) and its commercial prospects. Indian Food Ind 21(1):46–51Google Scholar
  16. Basappa SC, Somashekar D, Agrawal R, Suma K, Bharathi K (1997) Nutritional composition of fermented ragi (chhang) by phab and defined starter cultures as compared to unfermented ragi (Eleucine coracana G.). Int J Food Sci 48:313–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Batra LR (1986) Microbiology of some fermented cereals and grains legumes of India and vicinity. In: Hesseltine CW, Wang HL (eds) Indigenous fermented food of non-western origin. J. Cramer, Berlin, pp 85–104Google Scholar
  18. Behare PV, Singh R, Singh RP (2009) Exopolysaccharides-producing mesophilic lactic cultures for preparation of fat-free dahi- an Indian fermented milk. J Dairy Res 76:90–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bhatia AK, Singh RP, Atal CK (1977) Chhang—the fermented beverage of Himalayan folk. Indian Food Packer 4:1–8Google Scholar
  20. Boghra VR, Mathur ON (2000) Physico-chemical status of major milk constituents and minerals at various stages of shrikhand preparation. J Food Sci Technol 37:111–115Google Scholar
  21. Bora SS, Keot J, Das S, Sarma K, Barooah M (2016) Metagenomics analysis of microbial communities associated with a traditional rice wine starter culture (Xaj-pitha) of Assam, India. 3 Biotech 6(2):153. Scholar
  22. Bose DK (1922) Wine in ancient India. Connor, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  23. Bryant EF (2007) Krishna: a sourcebook. Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  24. Chakrabarty J, Sharma GD, Tamang JP (2014) Traditional technology and product characterization of some lesser-known ethnic fermented foods and beverages of North Cachar Hills District of Assam. Indian J Tradit Knowl 13(4):706–715Google Scholar
  25. Chandrasekar Rajendran SC, Chamlagain B, Kariluoto S, Piironen V, Saris PEJ (2017) Biofortification of riboflavin and folate in idli batter, based on fermented cereal and pulse, by Lactococcus lactis N8 and Saccharomyces boulardii SAA 655. J Appl Microbiol 122(6):1663–1671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chelliah R, Ramakrishnan SR, Prabhu PR, Antony U (2016) Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and probiotic properties of wild strain Pichia kudriavzevii isolated from frozen idli batter. Yeast 33:385–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chettri R, Tamang JP (2008) Microbiological evaluation of maseura, an ethnic fermented legume-based condiment of Sikkim. J Hill Res 21(1):1–7Google Scholar
  28. Chettri R, Tamang JP (2014) Functional properties of tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India. Int J Fermented Foods 3:87–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chettri R, Tamang JP (2015) Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India. Int J Food Microbiol 197:72–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chettri R, Bhutia M, Tamang JP (2016) Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA)-producing Bacillus species isolated from Kinema, Indian fermented soybean food. Front Microbiol 7:971. Scholar
  31. Chowdhury N, Goswami G, Hazarika S, Sharma-Pathak S, Barooah M (2018) Microbial dynamics and nutritional status of namsing: a traditional fermented fish product of Mishing community of Assam. Proc Natl Acad Sci India Sect B Biol Sci 89:1–12. Scholar
  32. Dandile UM, Pawar BK, Choudhari DM (2014) Sensory quality of Shrikhand prepared by using cardamom and saffron. Res J Animal Hus Dairy Sci 5:1–5Google Scholar
  33. De Mandal S, Singh SS, Bose Muthukumaran R, Thanzami K, Kumar V, Senthil Kumar N (2018) Metagenomic analysis and the functional profiles of traditional fermented pork fat ‘sa-um’ of Northeast India. AMB Express 8:163PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Devi KR, Deka M, Jeyaram K (2015) Bacterial dynamics during yearlong spontaneous fermentation for production of ngari, a dry fermented fish product of Northeast India. Int J Food Microbiol 199:62–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Devshete NG, Hembade VR, Mandwade KG, Burbade R (2013) Preparation of omega-3 enriched probiotic Shrikhand using walnut powder. Int J Proc Post Harv Technol 4:74–78Google Scholar
  36. Dewan S, Tamang JP (2006) Microbial and analytical characterization of Chhu—a traditional fermented milk product of Sikkim Himalayas. J Sci Ind Res 65:747–752Google Scholar
  37. Dewan S, Tamang JP (2007) Dominant lactic acid bacteria and their technological properties isolated from the Himalayan ethnic fermented milk products. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 92:343–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dubey A, Jeevaratnam K (2015) Probiotic screening of lactobacilli isolates from uttapam batter fermented supplementing with piper betel leaves. Adv Microbiol 5:858–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dundas P (2002) The jains, 2nd edn. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Fuller DQ (2015) Harappan seeds and agriculture: some considerations. Antiquity 75:410–414. Scholar
  41. Ghosh D, Chattopadhyay P (2011) Preparation of idli batter, its properties and nutritional improvement during fermentation. J Food Sci Technol 48(5):610–615PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Ghosh J, Rajorhia GS (1990) Selection of starter culture for production of indigenous fermented milk product (Misti dahi). Lait 70:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ghosh K, Maity C, Adak A, Halder SK, Jana A, Das A, Parua S, Das Mohapatra PK, Pati BR, Mondal KC (2014) Ethnic preparation of Haria, a rice-based fermented beverage, in the province of Lateritic West Bengal, India. Ethnobot Res Appl 12:39–49Google Scholar
  44. Ghosh K, Ray M, Adak A, Dey P, Halder SK, Das A, Jana A, Parua S, Das Mohapatra PK, Pati BR, Mondal KC (2015a) Microbial, saccharifying and antioxidant properties of an Indian rice based fermented beverage. Food Chem 168:196–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ghosh K, Ray M, Adak A, Halder SK, Das A, Jana A, Parua S, Vágvölgyi C, Das Mohapatra PK, Pati BR, Mondal KC (2015b) Role of probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum KKL1 in the preparation of a rice based fermented beverage. Bioresour Technol 188:161–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Giri SS, Janmejay LS (1994) Changes in soluble sugars and other constituents of bamboo shoots in soibum fermentation. J Food Sci Technol 31(6):500–502Google Scholar
  47. Gode PK (1943) Some notes on the history of Indian dietetics with special reference to the history of jalebi. New Indian Antiq 6:169–181Google Scholar
  48. Goel G, Kakkar M, Puniya A, Teotia U, Singh K (2005) Microbiological and chemical profiles of Kanji: a naturally fermented product of carrot. Asian J Microbiol Biotechnol Environ Sci 7(4):815–817Google Scholar
  49. Gorer G (1938) The Lepchas of Sikkim. Gian Publishing House, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  50. Guha BS (1937) An outline of racial ethnology of India. In: Hora SL (ed) An outline of the field sciences in India. Indian Science Congress Association, Calcutta, pp 125–139Google Scholar
  51. Gupta A, Tiwari SK (2014) Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 isolated from batter of Dosa, a South Indian fermented food. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 6(2):73–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gupta M, Khetarpaul N, Chauhan BM (1992a) Preparation, nutritional value and acceptability of barley rabadi—an indigenous fermented food of India. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 42:351–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gupta M, Khetarpaul N, Chauhan BM (1992b) Rabadi fermentation of wheat: changes in phytic acid content and in vitro digestibility. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 42:109–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gupta RC, Mann B, Joshi VK, Prasad DN (2000) Microbiological, chemical and ultrastructural characteristics of misti doi (sweetened dahi). J Food Sci Technol 37:54–57Google Scholar
  55. Harvey P (2013) An introduction to Buddhism: teachings, history and practices, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 88–90Google Scholar
  56. Hegde S, Nair LP, Chandran H, Irshad H (2018) Traditional Indian way of eating—an overview. J Ethnic Foods 5(1):20–23. Scholar
  57. Hinnells JR (1997) A new handbook of living religions. Pengiun, LondonGoogle Scholar
  58. Hooker JD (1854) Himalayan journals: notes of a naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim and Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia mountains. John Murray, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hussaini MM (1993) Islamic dietary concepts and practices. Islamic Food and nutrition Council of America, Bedford Park, ILGoogle Scholar
  60. INTACH (The Indian National Trust for Arts and Cultural Heritage) (2016) Haryana Newsletter. INTACH, New Delhi, p 36Google Scholar
  61. Jadhav SR, Shandilya UK, Kansal VK (2013) Exploring the ameliorative potential of probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium bifidum on dextran sodium sulphate induced colitis in mice. J Dairy Res 80:21–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jain S, Yadav H, Sinha PR, Kapila S, Naito Y, Marotta F (2010) Anti-allergic effects of probiotic dahi through modulation of the gut immune system. Turk J Gastroenterol 21:244–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jamison S, Brereton J (2014) The Rigveda: the earliest religious poetry of India. Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  64. Jeyaram K, Mohendro Singh W, Premarani T, Ranjita Devi A, Selina Chanu K, Talukdar NC, Rohinikumar Singh M (2008a) Molecular identification of dominant microflora associated with ‘Hawaijar’—a traditional fermented soybean (Glycine max L.) food of Manipur, India. Int J Food Microbiol 122:259–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jeyaram K, Singh M, Capece A, Romano P (2008b) Molecular identification of yeast species associated with “Hamei”—a traditional starter used for rice wine production in Manipur, India. Int J Food Microbiol 124:115–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jeyaram J, Anand Singh T, Romi W, Ranjita Devi A, Mohendro Singh W, Dayanidhi H, Rajmuhon Singh N, Tamang JP (2009) Traditional fermented foods of Manipur. Indian J Tradit Knowl 8(1):115–121Google Scholar
  67. Jeyaram K, Romi W, Singh TA, Devi AR, Devi SS (2010) Bacterial species associated with traditional starter cultures used for fermented bamboo shoot production in Manipur state of India. Int J Food Microbiol 143:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jeyaram K, Tamang JP, Capece A, Patrizia Romano P (2011) Geographical markers for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins domesticated for rice-based ethnic fermented beverages production in North East India. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 100(4):569–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Joshi N, Godbole SH, Kanekar P (1989) Microbial and biochemical changes during dhokla fermentation with special reference to flavour compounds. J Food Sci Technol 26(2):113–115Google Scholar
  70. Kakati BK, Goswami UC (2013a) Microorganisms and the nutritive value of traditional fermented fish products of Northeast India. Global J Biosci Biotechnol 2(1):124–127Google Scholar
  71. Kakati BK, Goswami UC (2013b) Characterization of the traditional fermented fish product Shidol of Northeast India prepared from Puntius sophore and Setipinna phasa. Indian J Tradit Knowl 12:85–90Google Scholar
  72. Kalki CS, Shetty PK (2015) Isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharide from Leuconostoc lactis KC117496 isolated from idli batter. Int J Biol Macromol 90:100–106. Scholar
  73. Kanekar P, Joshi N (1993) Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Hansenula silvicola contributing to acetoin and folic acid during dhokla fermentation. Indian J Microbiol 33:111–117Google Scholar
  74. Karche RV, Thakare VM, Bhagat AV, Shirsath SA (2015) Microbiological quality of cow milk shrikhand blended with sapota pulp. Int J Food Agric Vet Sci 5:18–22Google Scholar
  75. Katiyar SK, Bhasin AK, Bhatia AK (1991) Traditionally processed and preserved milk products of Sikkimese Tribes. Sci Cult 57(10–11):256–258Google Scholar
  76. Keisam S, Tuikhar N, Ahmed G, Jeyaram K (2019) Toxigenic and pathogenic potential of enteric bacterial pathogens prevalent in the traditional fermented foods marketed in the Northeast region of India. Int J Food Microbiol 296:21–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Keishing S, Banu AT (2013) Hawaijar—a fermented soya of Manipur, India. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 4(2):29–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Khatri PK (1987) Nepali Samaj ra Sanskriti (Prachin-Madhyakal). Shaja Prakashan, Kathmandu (Nepali)Google Scholar
  79. Khetarpaul N, Chauhan BM (1989) Effect of fermentation by pure cultures of yeasts and lactobacilli on phytic acid and polyphenol content of pearl millet. J Food Sci 54:78–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Khetarpaul N, Chauhan BM (1990a) Fermentation of pearl millet flour with yeasts and lactobacilli: in vitro digestibility and utilization of fermented flour for weaning mixtures. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 40:167–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Khetarpaul N, Chauhan BM (1990b) Effect of fermentation by pure cultures of yeasts and lactobacilli on the available carbohydrate content of pearl millet. Food Chem 36:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Khetarpaul N, Chauhan BM (1991) Effect of pure sequential culture fermentation by yeasts and lactobacilli on HCl-extractability of minerals from pearl millet. Food Chem 39:347–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Khorjuvenkar SNP (2016) Diversity among yeast isolated from naturally fermented cashew apple juice. PhD thesis, Goa UniversityGoogle Scholar
  84. Kilara A, Iya KK (1992) Food practices of the Hindu. Food Technol 46:94–104Google Scholar
  85. Kingston JJ, Radhika M, Roshini PT, Raksha MA, Murali HS, Batra HV (2010) Molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria recovered from natural fermentation of beet root and carrot Kanji. Indian J Microbiol 50:292–298PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Krishna Jois SN (1969) Supa sastra of mangarasa (AD 1516). University of Mysore, Karnataka, pp 3–252Google Scholar
  87. Kulkarni PH (2002) Ayurvedic aahar: the scientific diet. Sri Satguru, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  88. Kunjithapatham S, Balasubramaniam H (2012) Physicochemical properties of fresh and stored coconut palm toddy. J Psychol Psychother 1:397. Scholar
  89. Kwon DY, Tamang JP (2015) Religious ethnic foods. J Ethnic Foods 2:45–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lohekar AS, Arya AB (2014) Development of value added instant ‘dhokla’ mix. In J Food Nutr Sci 3(4):78–83Google Scholar
  91. Mahdihassan S (1979) Distillation assembly of pottery in ancient India with a single item of special construction. Visvesvaran Indol J 17:264Google Scholar
  92. Mahdihassan S (1981) Parisrut the earliest distilled liquor of Vedic times or of about 1500 BC. Indian J Hist Sci 16(2):223–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Majumdar RK, Basu S, Nayak BB (2009) Assessment of nutritional quality of ‘Shidal’ a fermented fish product of Northeast India. Indian J. Fisher Assoc 36:25–34Google Scholar
  94. Majumdar RK, Bejjanki SK, Roy D, Shitole S, Saha A, Narayan B (2015a) Biochemical and microbial characterization of Ngari and Hentaak-traditional fermented fish products of India. J Food Sci Technol 52:8284–8291PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Majumdar RK, Roy D, Bejjanki S, Bhaskar N (2015b) Chemical and microbial properties of shidal, a traditional fermented fish of Northeast India. J Food Sci Technol 53(1):401–410PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Majumder PP (2001) Ethnic populations of India as seen from an evolutionary perspective. J Biosci Indian Acad Sci 26(4):533–545Google Scholar
  97. Mangang KCS, Das AJ, Deka SC (2017) Comparative shelf life study of two different rice beers prepared using wild-type and established microbial starters. J Inst Brew 123:579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mitragotri VR (1992) A socio-cultural history of Goa from the bhoja to Vijayanagar rulers. PhD thesis, Goa University, GoaGoogle Scholar
  99. Modha H, Pal D (2011) Optimization of Rabadi-like fermented milk beverage using pearl millet. J Food Sci Technol 48(2):190–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mohanan KR, Shankar PA, Laxminarayana H (1984) Microflora of dahi prepared under household conditions of Bangalore. J Food Sci Technol 21:45–46Google Scholar
  101. Mohania D, Kansal VK, Kruzliak P, Kumari A (2014) Probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium bifidum modulates the formation of aberrant crypt foci, mucin-depleted foci, and cell proliferation on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in wistar rats. Rejuvenation Res 17:325–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mukherjee SK, Albury CS, Pederson AG, Steinkraus KH (1965) Role of Leuconostoc mesenteroides in leavening the batter of idli, a fermented food of India. App Microbiol 13(2):227–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Muzaddadi AU (2015) Minimisation of fermentation period of shidal from barbs (Puntius spp.). Fish Technol 52:34–41Google Scholar
  104. Muzaddadi AU, Basu S (2003) Seedal-an indigenous fermented fishery product of North-east India. Fisher Chim 23:30–32Google Scholar
  105. Muzaddadi AU, Basu S (2012) An accelerated process for fermented fish (seedal) production in North-east region of India. Indian J Anim Sci 82:98–106Google Scholar
  106. Oki K, Rai AK, Sato S, Watanabe K, Tamang JP (2011) Lactic acid bacteria isolated from ethnic preserved meat products of the Western Himalayas. Food Microbiol 28:1308–1315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Olivelle P (2006) Between the empires: society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-977507-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Omizu Y, Tsukamoto C, Chettri R, Tamang JP (2011) Determination of saponin contents in raw soybean and fermented soybean foods of India. J Sci Ind Res 70:533–538Google Scholar
  109. Padghan PV, Mann B, Rajeshkumar, Sharma R, Kumar A (2015) Studies on bio-functional activity of traditional lassi. Indian J Tradit Know 1:124–131Google Scholar
  110. Palanisamy BD, Rajendran V, Sathyaseelan S, Bhat R, Venkatesan BP (2012) Enhancement of nutritional value of finger millet-based food (Indian dosa) by co-fermentation with horse gram flour. Int J Food Sci Nutr 63(1):5–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Patel P, Patel V, Subhash R (2015) Probiotic lassi preparation and sensory evaluation using L. paracasei immobilized dry fruit pieces. Int J Fermented Foods 4(1–2):23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Patidar SK, Prajapati JB (1988) Standardization and evaluation of lassi prepared using Lb. acidophilus and S. thermophiles. J Food Sci Technol 35:428–431Google Scholar
  113. Possehl GL (2002) The Indus civilization: a contemporary perspective. Altamira Press, Lanham, MDGoogle Scholar
  114. Prakash O (1961) Food and drinks in ancient India. Munshi Ram Monoharlal Publishers, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  115. Prakash O (1987) Economy and food in ancient India, part II food. Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  116. Rai AK, Palni U, Tamang JP (2009) Traditional knowledge of the Himalayan people on the production of indigenous meat products. Indian J Tradit Knowl 8(1):104–109Google Scholar
  117. Rai AK, Tamang JP, Palni U (2010a) Microbiological studies of ethnic meat products of the Eastern Himalayas. Meat Sci 85:560–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rai AK, Tamang JP, Palni U (2010b) Nutritional value of lesser-known ethnic meat products of the Himalayas. J Hill Res 23(1&2):22–25Google Scholar
  119. Rai R, Kharel N, Tamang JP (2014) HACCP model of kinema, a fermented soybean food. J Sci Ind Res 73:588–592Google Scholar
  120. Rai R, Shangpliang HNJ, Tamang JP (2016) Naturally fermented milk products of the Eastern Himalayas. J Ethnic Foods 3:270–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rajpal S, Kansal VK (2009) Probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum stimulates immune system in mice. Milchwissenschaft 64:147–150Google Scholar
  122. Rapsang GF, Joshi SR (2012) Bacterial diversity associated with tungtap, an ethnic traditionally fermented fish product of Meghalaya. Indian J Tradit Knowl 11:134–138Google Scholar
  123. Rapsang GF, Kumar R, Joshi SR (2011) Identification of Lactobacillus puhozihii from tungtap: A traditionally fermented fish food, and analysis of its bacteriocinogenic potential. Afr J Biotechnol 10:12237–12243Google Scholar
  124. Rathi SD, Deshmukh DK, Ingle UM, Syed HM (1990) Studies on the physico-chemical properties of freeze-dried dahi. Indian J Dairy Sci 43:249–251Google Scholar
  125. Ray S, Bagyaraj DJ, Thilagar G, Tamang JP (2016) Preparation of Chyang, an ethnic fermented beverage of the Himalayas using different raw cereals. J Ethnic Foods 3:297–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Regubalan B, Ananthanarayan L (2018) Shelf life improvement of idli batter by addition of mustard essential oil as bio-preservative. J Food Sci Technol 55(9):3417–3426PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Regubalan B, Ananthanarayan L (2019) Investigation of biogenic amines content in fermented idli batter during storage. J Food Sci Technol 56(4):1775–1784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Richards JF (1995) The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  129. Risley HH (1928) The gazetteer of Sikkim. D. K. Publishing Distributors (P) Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  130. Romi W, Keisam S, Ahmed G, Jeyaram K (2014) Reliable differentiation of Meyerozyma guilliermondii from Meyerozyma caribbica by internal transcribed spacer restriction fingerprinting. BMC Microbiol 14:52–62PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Romi W, Ahmed G, Jeyaram K (2015) Three-phase succession of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to reach a stable ecosystem within 7 days of natural bamboo shoot fermentation as revealed by different molecular approaches. Mol Ecol 24(13):3372–3389. Scholar
  132. Sandhu DK, Soni SK (1989) Microflora associated with Indian Punjabi warri fermentation. J Food Sci Technol 26:21–25Google Scholar
  133. Sarangthem K, Singh TN (2003) Microbial bioconversion of metabolites from fermented succulent bamboo shoots into phytosterols. Curr Sci 84(12):1544–1547Google Scholar
  134. Saraniya A, Jeevaratnam K (2015) In vitro probiotics evaluation of phytase producing Lactobacillus species isolated from Uttapam batter and their application in soy milk fermentation. J Food Sci Technol 52(9):5631–5640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Sarkar PK, Tamang JP (1994) The influence of process variables and inoculum composition on the sensory quality of kinema. Food Microbiol 11:317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sarkar PK, Tamang JP (1995) Changes in the microbial profile and proximate composition during natural and controlled fermentation of soybeans to produce kinema. Food Microbiol 12:317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sarkar PK, Tamang JP, Cook PE, Owens JD (1994) Kinema—a traditional soybean fermented food: proximate composition and microflora. Food Microbiol 11:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sarkar PK, Jones LJ, Gore W, Craven GS (1996) Changes in soya bean lipid profiles during kinema production. J Sci Food Agric 71:321–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sarkar PK, Jones LJ, Craven GS, Somerset SM, Palmer C (1997) Amino acid profiles of kinema, a soybean-fermented food. Food Chem 59(1):69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sarkar PK, Morrison E, Tingii U, Somerset SM, Craven GS (1998) B-group vitamin and mineral contents of soybeans during kinema production. J Sci Food Agric 78:498–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sarkar A, Mukherjee AD, Bera MK, Das A, Juyal N, Morthekai R, Deshpande RD, Shinde VS, Rao KS (2016) Oxygen isotope in archaeological bioapatites from India: Implications to climate change and decline of Bronze Age Harappan civilization. Sci Rep 6:26555. Scholar
  142. Sarma PJ (1939) The art of healing. In: Rigveda annals of medical history, 3rd series, vol 1. P.B. Hoeber, New York, p 538Google Scholar
  143. Sawhney S, Versha P (2018) Concept of ahara in ayurveda. Int J Ayurvedic Med 6(5):1124–1130Google Scholar
  144. Sha SP, Anupma A, Pradhan P, Prasad GS, Tamang JP (2016) Identification of yeasts by PCR-mediated DGGE in marcha, an ethnic amylolytic starter of India. J Ethnic Foods 3:292–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sha SP, Jani K, Sharma A, Anupma A, Pradhan P, Shouche Y, Tamang JP (2017) Analysis of bacterial and fungal communities in Marcha and Thiat, traditionally prepared amylolytic starters of India. Sci Rep 7:10967. Scholar
  146. Sha SP, Suryavanshi MS, Jani K, Sharma A, Shouche Y, Tamang JP (2018) Diversity of yeasts and molds by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods for mycobiome surveillance of traditionally prepared dried starters for the production of Indian alcoholic beverages. Front Microbiol 9:2237. Scholar
  147. Sha SP, Suryavanshi MS, Tamang JP (2019) Mycobiome diversity in traditionally prepared starters for alcoholic beverages in India by high-throughput sequencing method. Front Microbiol 10:348. Scholar
  148. Shamala TR, Sreekantiah KR (1988) Microbiological and biochemical studies on traditional Indian palm wine fermentation. Food Microbiol 5:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Shangpliang HNK, Rai R, Keisam S, Jeyaram K, Tamang JP (2018) Bacterial community in naturally fermented milk products of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim of India analysed by high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Sci Rep 8:1532. Scholar
  150. Sharma N, Barooah M (2017) Microbiology of khorisa, its proximate composition and probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria present in Khorisa, a traditional fermented bamboo shoot product of Assam. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 8:78–88Google Scholar
  151. Sharma NK, Gill JPS, Joshi DV, Kwatra MS (1993) Microflora of Indian fermented milk products (dahi). Indian J Dairy Sci 46:85–87Google Scholar
  152. Shobha D, Joshi N (2016) Evaluation of maize dhokla for physical, sensory and functional parameters. Int J Agric Sci 8(36):1755–1758Google Scholar
  153. Shrestha R, Mehta M, Shah G (2017) Isolation and characterization of khaman fermenting microorganisms. Trends Biosci 10(8):1574–1576Google Scholar
  154. Shrivastava N, Ananthanarayan L (2015) Use of the backslopping method for accelerated and nutritionally enriched idli fermentation. J Sci Food Agric 95(10):2081–2087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Shruti S, Kansal VK (2011) Effect of feeding probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum on enzymes that catalyze carcinogen activation and detoxification in rats. Milchwissenschaft 66:244–247Google Scholar
  156. Singh D, Singh J (2014) Shrikhand: a delicious and healthful traditional Indian fermented dairy dessert. Trends Biosci 7:153–155Google Scholar
  157. Singh NL, Ramprasad, Mishra PK, Shukla SK, Kumar J, Singh R (2010) Alcoholic fermentation techniques in early Indian tradition. Indian J Hist Sci 45(2):163–173Google Scholar
  158. Singh TA, Devi KR, Ahmed G, Jeyaram K (2014) Microbial and endogenous origin of fibrinolytic activity in traditional fermented foods of Northeast India. Food Res Int 55:356–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Singh BR, Karan R, Singh V (2014a) Microbial quality and safety of Axone—Akhuni, a fermented soybean food of Nagaland. Noto Med 2014:13Google Scholar
  160. Singh D, Singh J, Kumar S, Verma T (2014b) Microbiological evaluation of soy fortified shrikhand by using response surface methodology. Int J Appl Biol Pharm Technol 5:1–7Google Scholar
  161. Singh SS, Mandal SE, Lalnunmawii E, Kumar NS (2018) Antimicrobial, antioxidant and probiotics characterization of dominant bacterial isolates from traditional fermented fish of Manipur, North-East India. J Food Sci Technol 55:1870–1879PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sinha SC (1996) Dictionary of philosophy. Anmol Publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  163. Sohliya I, Joshi SR, Bhagobaty RK, Kumar R (2009) Tungrymbai—a traditional fermented soybean food of the ethnic tribes of Meghalaya. Indian J Tradit Knowl 8(4):559–561Google Scholar
  164. Sonar NR, Halami PM (2014) Phenotypic identification and technological attributes of native lactic acid bacteria present in fermented bamboo shoot products from North-East India. J Food Sci Technol 51(12):4143–4148. Scholar
  165. Sonar NR, Vijayendra SVN, Prakash M, Saikia M, Tamang JP, Halami PM (2015) Nutritional and functional profile of traditional fermented bamboo shoot based products from Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur states of India. Int Food Res J 22(2):788–797Google Scholar
  166. Soni SK, Sandhu DK (1989a) Nutritional improvement of Indian dosa batter by yeast enrichment and black gram replacement. J Ferment Bioeng 68(1):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Soni SK, Sandhu DK (1989b) Fermentation of idli: effects of changes in raw materials and physico-chemical conditions. J Cereal Sci 10:227–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Soni SK, Sandhu DK (1990) Biochemical and nutritional changes associated with Indian Punjab Wari fermentation. J Food Sci Technol 27:82–85Google Scholar
  169. Soni SK, Sandhu DK (1991) Role of yeast domination in Indian idli batter fermentation. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 7:505–507PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Soni SK, Sandhu DK, Vilkhu KS (1985) Studies on dosa—an indigenous Indian fermented food: some biochemical changes accompanying fermentation. Food Microbiol 2:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Soni SK, Sandhu DK, Vilkhu KS, Kamra N (1986) Microbiological studies on dosa fermentation. Food Microbiol 3:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Sousa G (2019) Biggest ethnic groups in India. WorldAtlas. Accessed 18 July 2019
  173. Sridevi J, Halami PM, Vijayendra SVN (2010) Selection of starter cultures for idli batter fermentation and their effect on quality of idli. J Food Sci Technol 47:557–563PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Srinivasan K, Kunjithapatham S, Manickam L (2013) Traditional Indian breakfast (idli and dosa) with enhanced nutritional content using millets. Nutr Diet 70:241–246. Scholar
  175. Steinkraus KH, van Veer AG, Thiebeau DB (1967) Studies on idli—an Indian fermented black gram-rice food. Food Technol 21(6):110–113Google Scholar
  176. Sudheendra Ch VK, Madhavi TV, Gopikrishna G, Shah RK (2018) Study of microbial changes in probiotic and synbiotic lassi during storage. Pharm Innov 7(2):94–97Google Scholar
  177. Suman, Khetarpaul N (2018) Sensory, microbial, texture and nutritional evaluation of okara supplemented probiotic dhokla. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 7(4):1274–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sura K, Garg S, Garg FC (2001) Microbiological and biochemical changes during fermentation of Kanji. J Food Sci Technol 38:165–167Google Scholar
  179. Tamang JP (1999) Development of pulverised starter for kinema production. J Food Sci Technol 36:475–478Google Scholar
  180. Tamang JP (2003) Native microorganisms in fermentation of kinema. Indian J Microbiol 43(2):127–130Google Scholar
  181. Tamang JP (2010a) Himalayan fermented foods: microbiology, nutrition, and ethnic values. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  182. Tamang JP (2010b) Diversity of fermented foods. In: Tamang JP, Kailasapathy K (eds) Fermented foods and beverages of the world. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, New York, pp 41–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Tamang JP (2010c) Diversity of fermented beverages. In: Tamang JP, Kailasapathy K (eds) Fermented foods and beverages of the world. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, New York, pp 85–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Tamang JP (2015) Naturally fermented ethnic soybean foods of India. J Ethnic Foods 2:8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Tamang JP, Nikkuni S (1996) Selection of starter culture for production of kinema, a fermented soybean food of the Himalaya. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:629–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Tamang JP, Nikkuni S (1998) Effect of temperatures during pure culture fermentation of Kinema. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 14(6):847–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tamang JP, Samuel D (2010) Dietary culture and antiquity of fermented foods and beverages. In: Tamang JP, Kailasapathy K (eds) Fermented foods and beverages of the world. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, New York, pp 1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Tamang JP, Sarkar PK (1993) Sinki—a traditional lactic acid fermented radish tap root product. J Gen Appl Microbiol 39:395–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Tamang JP, Sarkar PK (1995) Microflora of marcha: an amylolytic fermentation starter. Microbios 81:115–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Tamang JP, Sarkar PK (1996) Microbiology of mesu, a traditionally fermented bamboo shoot product. Int J Food Microbiol 29(1):49–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Tamang B, Tamang JP (2010) In situ fermentation dynamics during production of gundruk and khalpi, ethnic fermented vegetables products of the Himalayas. Indian J Microbiol 50(Suppl 1):S93–S98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Tamang JP, Thapa S (2006) Fermentation dynamics during production of bhaati jaanr, a traditional fermented rice beverage of the Eastern Himalayas. Food Biotechnol 20(3):251–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Tamang JP, Sarkar PK, Hesseltine CW (1988) Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Darjeeling and Sikkim—a review. J Sci Food Agric 44:375–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Tamang JP, Dewan S, Olasupo NA, Schillinger V, Holzapfel WH (2000) Identification and enzymatic profiles of predominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from soft variety chhurpi, a traditional cheese typical of the Sikkim Himalayas. Food Biotechnol 14(1 & 2):99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Tamang JP, Thapa S, Dewan S, Yasuka J, Fudou R, Yamanaka S (2002) Phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus strains isolated from fermented soybean foods of Asia: Kinema, Chungkokjang and Natto. J Hill Res 15(2):56–62Google Scholar
  196. Tamang JP, Tamang B, Schillinger U, Franz CMAP, Gores M, Holzapfel WH (2005) Identification of predominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditionally fermented vegetable products of the Eastern Himalayas. Int J Food Microbiol 105:347–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Tamang JP, Dewan S, Tamang B, Rai A, Schillinger U, Holzapfel WH (2007) Lactic acid bacteria in Hamei and Marcha of North East India. Indian J Microbiol 47:119–125PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Tamang B, Tamang JP, Schillinger U, Franz CMAP, Gores M, Holzapfel WH (2008) Phenotypic and genotypic identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ethnic fermented tender bamboo shoots of North East India. Int J Food Microbiol 121:35–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Tamang JP, Tamang B, Schillinger U, Guigas C, Holzapfel WH (2009) Functional properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ethnic fermented vegetables of the Himalayas. Int J Food Microbiol 135:28–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Tamang JP, Tamang N, Thapa S, Dewan S, Tamang BM, Yonzan H, Rai AK, Chettri R, Chakrabarty J, Kharel N (2012) Microorganisms and nutritional value of ethnic fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of North East India. Indian J Tradit Knowl 11:7–25Google Scholar
  201. Tamang JP, Holzapfel WH, Watanabe K (2016a) Diversity of microorganisms in global fermented foods and beverages. Front Microbiol 7:377. Scholar
  202. Tamang JP, Shin DH, Jung SJ, Chae SW (2016b) Functional properties of microorganisms in fermented foods. Front Microbiol 7:578. Scholar
  203. Teramoto Y, Yoshida S, Ueda S (2002) Characteristics of a rice beer (zutho) and a yeast isolated from the fermented product in Nagaland, India. Int J Food Microbiol 18(9):813–816Google Scholar
  204. Thakur N (2013) Characterization of traditional fermentation processes used for the production of some alcoholic beverages (Chhang, Sura and Jau Chhang) in Himachal Pradesh. PhD thesis, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer Hill, Shimla, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  205. Thakur N, Savitri, Bhalla TC (2004) Characterization of traditional fermented foods and beverages of Himachal Pradesh. Indian J Tradit Knowl 3:325–335Google Scholar
  206. Thapa N (2016) Ethnic fermented and preserved fish products of India and Nepal. J Ethnic Foods 3:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Thapa N, Pal J (2007) Proximate composition of traditionally processed fish products of the Eastern Himalayas. J Hill Res 20(2):75–77Google Scholar
  208. Thapa S, Tamang JP (2004) Product characterization of kodo ko jaanr: fermented finger millet beverage of the Himalayas. Food Microbiol 21:617–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Thapa S, Tamang JP (2006) Microbiological and physico-chemical changes during fermentation of kodo ko jaanr, a traditional alcoholic beverage of the Darjeeling hills and Sikkim. Indian J Microbiol 46(4):333–341Google Scholar
  210. Thapa N, Pal J, Tamang JP (2004) Microbial diversity in ngari, hentak and tungtap, fermented fish products of Northeast India. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 20(6):599–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Thapa N, Pal J, Tamang JP (2006) Phenotypic identification and technological properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditionally processed fish products of the Eastern Himalayas. Int J Food Microbiol 107(1):33–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Thapa N, Pal J, Tamang JP (2007) Microbiological profile of dried fish products of Assam. Indian J. Fish 54(1):121–125Google Scholar
  213. Thokchom S, Joshi SR (2015) Physicochemical analysis of ethnically fermented soybean products of North-East India and molecular characterization of associated lactic acid bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B. Biol Sci 85:527–533Google Scholar
  214. Tsuyoshi N, Fudou R, Yamanaka S, Kozaki M, Tamang N, Thapa S, Tamang JP (2005) Identification of yeast strains isolated from marcha in Sikkim, a microbial starter for amylolytic fermentation. Int J Food Microbiol 99:135–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Twaigery S, Spillman D (1989) An introduction to Muslim dietary laws. Food Technol 43(2):88–90Google Scholar
  216. Vijayendra SVN, Rajashree K, Halami PM (2010) Characterization of a heat stable anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium isolated from idli batter. Indian J Microbiol 50(2):243–246PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Vishnu-Mittren (1978) Origins and history of agriculture in the Indian sub-continent. J Hum Evol 7(1):31–36. Scholar
  218. Yegna Narayan Aiyar AK (1953) Dairying in ancient India. Indian Dairyman 5:77–83Google Scholar
  219. Yonzan H, Tamang JP (2009) Traditional processing of Selroti: a cereal based ethnic fermented food of Nepalis. Indian J Tradit Knowl 8(1):110–114Google Scholar
  220. Yonzan H, Tamang JP (2010) Microbiology and nutritional value of selroti, an ethnic fermented cereal food of the Himalayas. Food Biotechnol 24(3):227–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Yonzan H, Tamang JP (2013) Optimization of traditional processing of Selroti, a popular cereal-based fermented food. J Sci Ind Res 72:43–47Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jyoti Prakash Tamang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, DAICENTER (DBT-AIST International Centre for Translational and Environmental Research) and Bioinformatics CentreSikkim University (Central University)GangtokIndia

Personalised recommendations