Irrigation Scheduling for Cotton Cultivation

  • Sajjad Hussain
  • Ashfaq Ahmad
  • Aftab Wajid
  • Tasneem Khaliq
  • Nazim Hussain
  • Muhammad MubeenEmail author
  • Hafiz Umar Farid
  • Muhammad Imran
  • Hafiz Mohkum Hammad
  • Muhammad Awais
  • Amjed Ali
  • Muhammad Aslam
  • Asad Amin
  • Rida Akram
  • Khizer Amanet
  • Wajid Nasim


Crops need water for evaporation (E) and transpiration (T), known as evapotranspiration (ET). However, too much water is not good for various crops. Crop water need depends on growth stage, climate, and crop type. Approximately 40% cotton is produced under irrigated conditions. Water for irrigation is becoming limited in many cotton-growing regions and competition for water is increasing speedily in areas normally having plentiful water resources. So, many cotton producers and the associations representing cotton producers are interested in the scheduling of irrigation strategies that increase water use efficiency (WUE). Responses of cotton under water stress depend on stage of growth, duration, time, and extent of stress. Cotton is a drought-tolerant crop; however, it performs better under optimum water conditions. The water requirement of cotton is 27–51 acre inches depending upon growing duration and prevailing climatic conditions. However, it is essential to apply uniform and accurate amount of water at proper time for maximum cotton yield. Normally, cotton uses less water from sowing to emergence. However, pre-sowing irrigation is mandatory to ensure good cotton seed germination. After germination, crop water demand increases from 0.2 to 0.44 in. per day. Lack of water can reduce plant growth, the number of fruiting sites because of shedding of young bolls, and boll size, consequently resulting in loss of yield potential. There are various irrigation scheduling tools, the main purpose of which is to supply water according to the need of the plant. Water balance method, estimating crop water use, and sensor-based scheduling are a few important tools to maintain irrigation scheduling in cotton.


Water use efficiency Evapotranspiration Irrigation methods Irrigation techniques 



Carbon dioxide


Canopy temperature




Frequency domain reflectometry


Granular matrix sensors


Mississippi irrigation scheduling tool


Subsurface drip irrigation


Time domain reflectometry


Volumetric moisture content


Water use efficiency


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajjad Hussain
    • 1
  • Ashfaq Ahmad
    • 2
  • Aftab Wajid
    • 3
  • Tasneem Khaliq
    • 3
  • Nazim Hussain
    • 4
  • Muhammad Mubeen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hafiz Umar Farid
    • 5
  • Muhammad Imran
    • 1
  • Hafiz Mohkum Hammad
    • 1
  • Muhammad Awais
    • 6
  • Amjed Ali
    • 7
  • Muhammad Aslam
    • 8
  • Asad Amin
    • 1
    • 9
  • Rida Akram
    • 1
  • Khizer Amanet
    • 1
  • Wajid Nasim
    • 10
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyVehariPakistan
  2. 2.Program Chair, Climate Change, US.-Pakistan Centre for Advanced Studies in Agriculture and Food SecurityUniversity of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Agro-Climatology Lab, Department of AgronomyUniversity of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Department of AgronomyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  5. 5.Department of Agricultural EngineeringBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  6. 6.Department of AgronomyUniversity College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB)BahawalpurPakistan
  7. 7.University College of Agriculture, University of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan
  8. 8.Department of Agriculture (Extension Wing)Government of PunjabLahorePakistan
  9. 9.Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI)The University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  10. 10.Department of Agronomy, University College of Agriculture and Environmental SciencesIslamia University of BahawalpurBahawalpurPakistan

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