Managing Planting Time for Cotton Production

  • Muhammad Naveed Afzal
  • Muhammad TariqEmail author
  • Muhammad Ahmed
  • Ghulam Abbas
  • Zahid Mehmood


Since cotton is responsive to its surrounding environments, an appropriate planting time is very important to realize its optimum yield potential. The temperature is an important environmental factor for which planting time varies across the world. It may be from few days to weeks, called as planting window. It must be optimized according to yield target, forthcoming weed, pest, disease, and abiotic stress problems. The planting time is considered optimum if it permits the completion of the crop vegetative and reproductive growth stages in an efficient way. There is an optimum planting time and further delay drastically reduced seed cotton yield. It determines the duration of various phenological stages such as appearance of first square, flower, and boll split on 50% population and total crop duration. Generally, early planting results in higher yield by extending growth period, and late planting reduces yield because of shortened season. The planting time has a major role for fiber and seed quality optimization to ensure good-quality yarn and better seed germination. The planting time is strictly monitored and legally implemented in certain regions of the world to prevent disease and pests. The climate change is threatening cotton production throughout the world, and adjustment of planting dates may play an effective role as an adaptation strategy to match fruiting phase to favorable climate.


Planting window Yield Seed Lint quality Climate change 



Bacterial blight


Central Cotton Research Institute


Cotton Institute Multan


Cotton leaf curl virus disease


El Niño-Southern Oscillation


Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology


Ramularia leaf spot


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Naveed Afzal
    • 1
  • Muhammad Tariq
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Ahmed
    • 1
  • Ghulam Abbas
    • 2
  • Zahid Mehmood
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Cotton Research InstituteMultanPakistan
  2. 2.Department of AgronomyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan

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