Advertisement

Cotton-Based Cropping Systems and Their Impacts on Production

  • Amar MatloobEmail author
  • Farhena Aslam
  • Haseeb Ur Rehman
  • Abdul Khaliq
  • Shakeel Ahmad
  • Azra Yasmeen
  • Nazim Hussain
Chapter
  • 39 Downloads

Abstract

Cotton farming symbolizes single largest use of arable land for fiber production on earth, and cotton-based cropping systems are practiced under diverse agro-climatic environments in more than 100 countries. World cotton production has escalated in recent past and has undergone numerous technological transformations and socioeconomic interventions in quest of productivity and sustainability. Cotton-based cropping systems range from low-input rainfed systems in Australia and Africa to highly mechanized intensive farming systems in the United States, Brazil, and China. In India and Pakistan, multiplicity of cotton varieties, weather extremes, uncertainty of climatic optima, spurious seeds, non-remunerative markets, and low quality plus adulterated chemicals or pesticides are key problems leading to low yields besides net profits in otherwise high productivity cotton-based cropping systems. Resource conserving, eco-efficient, climate smart, and economically viable cropping systems that rotate/intercrop cotton with cereals, oilseeds, and legumes are required. Relay or intercropping and crop rotations will lead to the ecological intensification of cotton-based cropping systems. An ideal cotton-based cropping system should aim at higher yields and net profits per unit area, bring stability into the production system, ensure optimal utilization of the available resources, be able to meet domestic requirements of farmer, and avoid ecological uncertainty in the form of shifts in insect pests or weed populations or evolution of pesticide resistance in the long run. Another area requiring significant improvement is integrating current curative pest management options with other cultural methods to avoid insecticide/herbicide resistance development in an era of transgenics. The transgenics have their own pros and cons, and due deliberations in the best interest of agro-ecosystem sustainability and small landholders be made with involvement of all stakeholders. Biotech seed industry should plan safe mechanisms for herbicide-tolerant crop development to evade resistance development or gene introgression in weeds. Productivity and profitability of cotton-based cropping systems needs to be explored with greater ecological orientation under conventional and organic management systems. This chapter documents the productivity and resource use efficiency of cotton-based cropping systems based on existing agronomic and experimental evidences. Crop growth and development, productivity, quality, resource use efficiencies, and profitability of various systems have been discussed at the plant, field, and system levels.

Keywords

Climate smart cotton production Insect pests Lint yield and quality Productivity and profitability Resource use efficiency Sustainable cropping systems 

Abbreviations

g ha−1

Gram per hectare

K

Potassium

kg ha−1

Kilogram per hectare

t ha−1

Tons per hectare

ATER

Area time equivalent ratio

LER

Land equivalent ratio

LUE

Light use efficiency

N

Nitrogen

NUE

Nitrogen use efficiency

P

Phosphorus

PAR

Photosynthetically active radiation

Zn

Zinc

References

  1. Abbas Q, Ahmad S (2018) Effect of different sowing times and cultivars on cotton fiber quality under stable cotton-wheat cropping system in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Pak J Life Soc Sci 16:77–84Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad S, Abbas Q, Abbas G, Fatima Z, Atique-ur-Rehman NS, Younis H, Khan RJ, Nasim W, Habib ur Rehman M, Ahmad A, Rasul G, Khan MA, Hasanuzzaman M (2017) Quantification of climate warming and crop management impacts on cotton phenology. Plan Theory 6(7):1–16Google Scholar
  3. Ahmad S, Iqbal M, Muhammad T, Mehmood A, Ahmad S, Hasanuzzaman M (2018) Cotton productivity enhanced through transplanting and early sowing. Acta Sci Biol Sci 40:e34610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad S, Raza I (2014) Optimization of management practices to improve cotton fiber quality under irrigated arid environment. J Food Agric Environ 2(2):609–613Google Scholar
  5. Ahmad S, Raza I, Ali H, Shahzad AN, Atiq-ur-Rehman SN (2014) Response of cotton crop to exogenous application of glycine betaine under sufficient and scarce water conditions. Braz J Bot 37(4):407–415Google Scholar
  6. Ali H, Abid SA, Ahmad S, Sarwar N, Arooj M, Mahmood A, Shahzad AN (2013a) Integrated weed management in cotton cultivated in the alternate-furrow planting system. J Food Agric Environ 11(3&4):1664–1669Google Scholar
  7. Ali H, Abid SA, Ahmad S, Sarwar N, Arooj M, Mahmood A, Shahzad AN (2013b) Impact of integrated weed management on flat-sown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). J Anim Plant Sci 23(4):1185–1192Google Scholar
  8. Ali H, Afzal MN, Ahmad F, Ahmad S, Akhtar M, Atif R (2011) Effect of sowing dates, plant spacing and nitrogen application on growth and productivity on cotton crop. Int J Sci Eng Res 2(9):1–6Google Scholar
  9. Ali H, Hameed RA, Ahmad S, Shahzad AN, Sarwar N (2014a) Efficacy of different techniques of nitrogen application on American cotton under semi-arid conditions. J Food Agric Environ 12(1):157–160Google Scholar
  10. Ali H, Hussain GS, Hussain S, Shahzad AN, Ahmad S, Javeed HMR, Sarwar N (2014b) Early sowing reduces cotton leaf curl virus occurrence and improves cotton productivity. Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova XLVII(4):71–81Google Scholar
  11. Amin A, Nasim W, Mubeen M, Ahmad A, Nadeem M, Urich P, Fahad S, Ahmad S, Wajid A, Tabassum F, Hammad HM, Sultana SR, Anwar S, Baloch SK, Wahid A, Wilkerson CJ, Hoogenboom G (2018) Simulated CSM-CROPGRO-cotton yield under projected future climate by SimCLIM for southern Punjab, Pakistan. Agric Syst 167:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Amin A, Nasim W, Mubeen M, Nadeem M, Ali L, Hammad HM, Sultana SR, Jabran K, Habib urRehman M, Ahmad S, Awais M, Rasool A, Fahad S, Saud S, Shah AN, Ihsan Z, Ali S, Bajwa AA, Hakeem KR, Ameen A, Amanullah HUR, Alghabar F, Jatoi GH, Akram M, Khan A, Islam F, Ata-Ul-Karim ST, Rehmani MIA, Hussain S, Razaq M, Fathi A (2017) Optimizing the phosphorus use in cotton by using CSM-CROPGRO-cotton model for semi-arid climate of Vehari-Punjab, Pakistan. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(6):5811–5823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aasim M, Umer EM, Karim A (2008) Yield and competition indices of intercropping cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using different planting patterns. Tarim Bilim Derg 14:326–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Abedullah KS, Qaim M (2015) Bt cotton, pesticide use and environmental efficiency in Pakistan. J Agric Econ 66(1):66–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Abid M, Ahmed N, Qayyum MF, Shaaban M, Rashid A (2013) Residual and cumulative effect of fertilizer zinc applied in wheat-cotton production system in an irrigated aridisol. Plant Soil Environ 11:505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ahmad S, Cheema HMN, Khan AA, Khan RSA, Ahmad JN (2019) Resistance status of Helicoverpa armigera against Bt cotton in Pakistan. Transgenic Res 28(2):199–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Aladakatti YR, Hallikeri SS, Nandagavi RA, Hugar AY, Naveen NE (2011) Effect of intercropping of oilseed crops on growth, yield and economics of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) under rainfed conditions. Karnataka J Agric Sci 24:280–282Google Scholar
  18. Alvi AHK, Sayyed AH, Naeem M, Ali M (2012) Field evolved resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in Pakistan. PLoS One 7:e47309PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bange MP, Carberry PS, Marshall J, Milroy SP (2005) Row configuration as a tool for managing rain-fed cotton systems: review and analysis. Aust J Exp Agric 45:65–77Google Scholar
  20. Blaise D (2012) Fertilizer-K recommendation for cotton grown on Vertisols: is there a need for revision? In: IPI-FAI-IPNI Roundtable on Refinement of K recommendations in Vertisols, 20 March 2012, New Delhi. http://www.ipipotash.org/udocs/presentation_dr_blaise.pdf
  21. Blaise D (2017) Cotton based cropping systems. In: Ramesh K, Biswas AK, Lakaria B, Srivastava S, Patra AK (eds) Enhancing nutrient use efficiency. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi, pp 369–384Google Scholar
  22. Braunack MV (2013) Cotton farming systems in Australia: factors contributing to changed yield and fibre quality. Crop Pasture Sci 64:834–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bryson CT, Salisbury C, McCloskey WB (1999) Weeds and their control. In: Cothren JT, Smith CW (eds) Cotton: origin, technology, and production. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 617–658Google Scholar
  24. Buttar GS, Thind HS, Sekhon KS, Kaur A, Gill RS, Sidhu BS, Aujla MS (2017) Management of saline-sodic water in cotton-wheat cropping system. J Agric Sci Technol 19:465–474Google Scholar
  25. Cao GL, Zhang XY, Wang YQ, Zheng FC (2008) Estimation of emissions from field burning of crop straw in China. Chin Sci Bull 53:784–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Charles GW, Taylor IN (2004) Herbicide resistance and species shift in cotton: The need for an Integrated Weed Management (IWM) approach. In: Swanepoel A (ed) Proc. World Cotton Research Conf.–3, Cotton production for the new millenium, Cape Town, 2003, ARC, Institute for Industrial Crops, Pretoria, pp. 817–828Google Scholar
  27. Cheema HMN, Khan AA, Khan MI, Aslam U, Rana IA, Khan IA (2015) Assessment of Bt cotton genotypes for the Cry1Ac transgene and its expression. J Agric Sci 154:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Choudhary R, Singh P, Sidhu HS, Nandala DP, Jat HS, Singh Y, Jat ML (2016) Evaluation of tillage and crop establishment methods integrated with relay seeding of wheat and mungbean for sustainable intensification of cotton-wheat system in South Asia. Field Crops Res 199:31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cong WF, Hoffland E, Li L, Six J, Sun JH, Bao XG, Zhang FS, Van Der Werf W (2014) Intercropping enhances soil carbon and nitrogen. Glob Chang Biol 21:1715–1726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cook SM, Khan ZR, Pickett JA (2007) The use of push–pull strategies in integrated pest management. Annu Rev Entomol 52:375–400PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dai JL, Dong HZ (2014) Intensive cotton farming technologies in China: achievements, challenges and countermeasures. Field Crops Res 155:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Das A, Prasad M, Shivay YS, Subha KM (2004) Productivity and sustainability of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)–wheat (Triticuma estivum L.) cropping system as influenced by prilled urea, farmyard manure and azotobacter. J Agron Crop Sci 190:298–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Das TK, Bhattacharyya R, Sudhishri S, Sharma AR, Saharawat YS, Bandyopadhyay KK, Sepat S, Bana RS, Aggarwal P, Sharma RK, Bhatia A, Singh G, Datta SP, Kar A, Singh B, Singh P, Pathak H, Vyas AK, Jat ML (2014) Conservation agriculture in an irrigated cotton–wheat system of the western Indo-Gangetic Plains: Crop and water productivity and economic profitability. Field Crops Res 158:24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Daujanov A, Groeneveld R, Pulatov A, Heijman WJM (2016) Cost-benefit analysis of conservation agriculture implementation in Syrdarya Province of Uzbekistan. Visegrad J Bioecon Sustain Dev 5:48–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deguine JP, Ferron P, Russell D (2008) Sustainable pest management for cotton production. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 28:113–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dhaliwal NS, Sandhu BS (2015) Yield production and economics of different cropping system in south-western part of Punjab. Int Res J Econ Stat 6:414–418Google Scholar
  37. Dowling D (2002) Cotton year book. The Australian Cotton Grower, ToowoombaGoogle Scholar
  38. Du X, Chen B, Shen T, Zhang Y, Zhou Z (2015) Effect of cropping system on radiation use efficiency in double-cropped wheat–cotton. Field Crops Res 170:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Du X, Chen B, Zhang Y, Zhao W, Shen T, Zhou Z, Meng Y (2016) Nitrogen use efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as influenced by wheat–cotton cropping systems. Eur J Agron 75:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Duraimurugan P, Regupathy A (2005) Push-pull strategy with trap crops, neem and nuclear polyhedrosis virus for insecticide resistance management in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in cotton. Am J Appl Sci 2:1042–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Economou G, Bilalis D, Avgoulas C (2005) Weed flora distribution in Greek cotton fields and its possible influence by herbicides. Phytoparasitica 33:406–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Farrell R (2017) Australia: cotton and products annual (April 2017). USDA Foreign agricultural service, global agriculture information network. Report No. As1705. p. 7Google Scholar
  43. Feike T, Doluschitz R, Chen Q, Graeff-Hönninger S, Claupein W (2012) How to overcome the slow death of intercropping in the North China Plain. Sustainability 4:2550–2565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Feng L, Wang G, Han Y, Li Y, Zhu Y, Zhou Z, Cao W (2017) Effects of planting pattern on growth and yield and economic benefits of cotton in a wheat-cotton double cropping system versus monoculture cotton. Field Crops Res 213:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fernandes FS, Godoy WAC, Ramalho FS, Garcia AG, Santos BDB, Malaquias JB (2018) Population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aphididae) in sole and intercropping systems of cotton and cowpea. Annals Braz Acad Sci 90:311–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fernandes FS, Ramalho FS, Malaquias JB, Godoy WAC, Santos BDB (2015) Interspecific associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and two aphid species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi) in sole-crop and fennel-cotton intercropping systems. PLoS One 10(8):e0131449PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Forster D, Andres C, Verma R, Zundel C, Messmer MM, Mäder P (2014) Productivity and profitability of cotton-based production systems under organic and conventional management in India. In: Rahmann G, Aksoy U (eds) Proceedings of the 4th ISOFAR Scientific Conference. ‘Building Organic Bridges’, at the Organic World Congress 2014, 13–15 Oct, Istanbul, Turkey (eprint ID 23660) pp. 647–650Google Scholar
  48. Gaba S, Lescourret F, Boudsocq S, Enjalbert J, Hinsinger P, Journet EP, Navas ML, Wery J, Louarn G, Malézieux E, Pelzer E, Prudent M, Ozier-Lafontaine H (2015) Multiple cropping systems as drivers for providing multiple ecosystem services: from concepts to design. Agron Sustain Dev 35:607–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gahukar RT (2017) Cotton based cropping systems in Maharashtra: economic analysis and future needs. J Cotton Res Dev 31:152–156Google Scholar
  50. Ghosh PK, Bandypadhyay KK, Wanjari RH, Manna MC, Mishra AK, Mohanty M (2008) Legume effect for enhancing productivity and nutrient-use efficiency in major cropping systems—an Indian perspective: a review. J Sustain Agric 30:59–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gillham FEM, Bell TM, Arin T, Matthews GA, Le Rumeur C, Hearn AB (1995) Cotton production prospects in the next decade. World Bank, USA, 277Google Scholar
  52. Gopalakrishnan N, Manickam S, Prakash AH (2007) Problems and prospectus of cotton in different zones of India. Central Institute for Cotton Research, Regional Station, Coimbatore. –641 003 (December 15–22, 2007)Google Scholar
  53. Graham P (2009) Brazil. In: Cotton Outlook (2009) Cotton trading relationships with China. Cotton Outlook, Special Feature. June 2009. pp. 22–26Google Scholar
  54. Green JM (2018) The rise and future of glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops. Pest Manag Sci 74:1035–1039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grundy PR, Sequeira RV, Short KS (2004) Evaluating legume species as alternative trap crops to chickpea for management of Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in central Queensland cotton cropping systems. Bull Entomol Res 94:481–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Guest A, Mass S, Taylor I, Werth J, Thornby D, Charles G (2014) Herbicide resistance in Australian cotton farming systems. Cotton Pest Management Guide 2014–15. pp. 85–91. http://www.insidecotton.com/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1/1079/CPMG1415_08_herbicide_%20resistance_in_aus_cotton_FS.pdf?sequence=11&isAllowed=y
  57. Gwathmey CO, Steckel LE, Larson JA (2008) Solid and skip-row spacings for irrigated and nonirrigated upland cotton. Agron J 100:672–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Heap I, Duke SO (2018) Overview of glyphosate-resistant weeds worldwide. Pest Manag Sci 74:1040–1049PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hearn AB (1990) Prospects for rain-fed cotton. In: Proceedings of the 5th Australian Cotton Conference, 8–9 August. Australian Cotton Growers Research Association, Broadbeach, Queensland, pp 135–144Google Scholar
  60. Hiremath R, Yadahalli GS, Chittapur BM, Siddapur AD, YadahalliVG KBRG (2013) Integrated weed management in Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under UKP command area of Karnataka. Acta Biol Indica 2:400–405Google Scholar
  61. Hussain A, Kumar D, Dwivedi BS, Rana DS, Gangaiah B (2014) Relative response of Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to balanced fertilization in irrigated cotton-wheat cropping system. Afr J Agric Res 9:21–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hussein SMA (2005) Planting date, pattern and fertilizers levels for cotton grown in relay intercropping with wheat. Zagazig J Agric Res 32:1403–1425Google Scholar
  63. ICAC (2015) International Cotton Advisory Committee. Available at: http://www.ic.ac.org. Accessed 28 Nov 2015
  64. Iqbal N, Manalil S, Chauhan BS, Adkins SW (2019) Glyphosate-tolerant cotton in Australia: successes and failures. Arch Agron Soil Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2019.1566720 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. ITC (International Trade Centre) (2011) Cotton and climate change: impacts and options to mitigate and adapt. ITC, Geneva, p 32. (Technical paper). Doc. No. MAR-11-200.EGoogle Scholar
  66. Jabran K (2016) Weed flora, yield losses and weed control in cotton crop. Julius-Kühn-Archiv 452:177–182Google Scholar
  67. James C (2012) Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: 2011. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Application (ISAAA)Google Scholar
  68. James C, Choudhary B (2010) Global adoption of biotech cotton, 1996 to 2007. In: Zehr UB (ed) Cotton, biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 65. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 177–196Google Scholar
  69. James C (2002) Global review of commercialized transgenic crops: 2001. Feature: Bt Cotton. ISAAA Briefs No. 26. ISAAA: Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
  70. Jost P, Shurley D, Culpepper S, Roberts P, Nichols R, Reeves J, Anthony S (2008) Economic comparison of transgenic and non-transgenic cotton production systems in Georgia. Agron J 100:42–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Karademir C (2006) Cotton situation in Turkey. Presentation (.ppt) at ICAC Research Associate Programme, Washington, D.C., USA. April 2006, p. 22Google Scholar
  72. Katyal JC, Sharma KL, Srinivas K, Reddy MN (1997) Balanced fertilizer use in semi-arid soils. Fert News 42:59–69Google Scholar
  73. Khaitov B, Allanov K (2014) Crop rotation with no-till methods in cotton production of Uzbekistan. Eur J Soil Sci 3:28–32Google Scholar
  74. Khan B, Khaliq A (2005) Production of winter cereals as relay crops by surface seeding in cotton based cropping system. J Res (Sci) 16:79–86Google Scholar
  75. Khan MB, Khaliq A, Ahmad S (2004) Performance of mashbean intercropped in cotton planted in different planting patterns. J Res (Sci) 15(2):191–197Google Scholar
  76. Khan MI, Khan AA, Cheema HMN, Khan RSA (2018) Spatiotemporal and intra-plant expression variability of insecticidal gene (Cry1Ac) in upland cotton. Int J Agric Biol 20:715–722Google Scholar
  77. Khushk AM, Mernon MY, Lashari MI, Longmire J (1990) Wheat in the cotton-based cropping systems of the irrigated Sindh. PARC/CIMMYT Paper 90–4. p. 38Google Scholar
  78. Kruger GR, Johnson WG, Weller SC, Owen MDK, Shaw DR, Wilcut JW, Jordan DL, Wilson RG, Bernards ML, Young BG (2009) US grower views on problematic weeds and changes in weed pressure in glyphosate-resistant corn, cotton, and soybean cropping systems. Weed Technol 23:162–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lamichhane JR, Devos Y, Beckie HJ, Owen MD, Tillie P, Messéan A, Kudsk P (2017) Integrated weed management systems with herbicide-tolerant crops in the European Union: lessons learnt from home and abroad. Crit Rev Biotechnol 37:459–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lamlom MM, Abdel-Wahab SI, Abdel-Wahab TI, Ibrahim MAA (2018) Crop interference effects of some winter and summer field crops on Egyptian cotton characters. Adv Crop Sci Tech 6(5):394.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-8863.1000394 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lee JA, Fang DD (2015) Cotton as a world crop: origin, history, and current status. In: Fang DD, Percy RG (eds) Cotton, 2nd edn. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  82. Li W (2001) Agro-ecological farming systems in China: man and the biosphere. Taylor & Francis Ltd., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  83. Liebman M, Gallandt ER (2002) Differential responses to red clover residue and ammonium nitrate by common bean and wild mustard. Weed Sci 50:521–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lin R, Liang H, Zhang R, Tian C, Ma Y (2003) Impact of alfalfa/cotton intercropping and management on some aphid predators in China. J Appl Entomol 127:33–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Luo Z, Liu H, Li W, Zhao Q, Dai J, Tian L, Dong H (2018) Effects of reduced nitrogen rate on cotton yield and nitrogen use efficiency as mediated by application mode or plant density. Field Crops Res 218:150–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ma XM, Liu XX, Zhang QW, Zhao JZ, Cai QN, Ma YA, Chen DM (2006) Assessment of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii, and their natural enemies on aphid-resistant and aphid-susceptible wheat varieties in a wheat–cotton relay intercropping system. Ento Eperiet Appl 121:235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Manalil S, Coast O, Werth J, Chauhan BS (2017) Weed management in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) through weed-crop competition: A review. Crop Prot 95:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mannikar ND (1993) Fertilizer management in cotton. In: Tandon HLS (ed) Fertilizer management in commercial crops. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization (FDCO), New Delhi, pp 26–46Google Scholar
  89. Mao L, Zhang L, Zhang S, Evers JB, van der Werf W, WANG J, Sun H, Su Z, Huub S (2015) Resource use efficiency, ecological intensification and sustainability of intercropping systems. J Integr Agric 14:1542–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Marimuthu S, Subbian P (2013) Integrated nutrient management on weed dynamics of cotton based cropping systems in South India. SAARC J Agric 11:7–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mayee CD, Monga D, Dhillon SS, Nehra PL, Pundhir P (2008) Cotton–wheat production system in South Asia: A success story. Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions, Bangkok, pp 1–48Google Scholar
  92. Mayee CD, Singh P, Dongre AB, Rao MRK, Raj S (2009) Transgenic Bt cotton. Central Institute of Cotton Research, Nagpur, MaharashtraGoogle Scholar
  93. Men X, Ge F, Edwards CA, Yardim EN (2004a) Influence of pesticide applications on pest and predatory arthropods associated with transgenic Bt cotton and non-transgenic cotton plants in China. Phytoparasitica 32:246–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Men X, Ge F, Yardim EN, Parajulee MN (2004b) Evaluation of winter wheat as a potential relay crop for enhancing biological control of cotton aphids in seedling cotton. BioControl 49:701–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mensah RK (1999) Habitat diversity: implications for the conservation and the use of predatory insects of Helicoverpa spp. in cotton systems in Australia. Int J Pest Manag 45:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Miller JR, Cowles RS (1990) Stimulo-deterrent diversion: a concept and its possible application to onion maggot control. J Chem Ecol 16:3197–3212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Milroy SP, Bange MP, Hearn AB (2004) Row configuration in rainfed cotton systems: modification of the OZCOT simulation model. Agric Syst 82:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mohammad MK, El-din GMS, Hosny AA (1991) Evaluating three patterns of intercropping cotton and forage cowpeas. Ann Agric Sci Moshotor 29:1269–1284Google Scholar
  99. Mueller J, Kirkpatrick T, Overstreet C, Koenning S, Kemerait B, Nichols B (2012) Managing nematodes in cotton-based cropping systems. https://www.cottoninc.com/wpcontent/.../2015/12/2012-Managing-Nematodes.pdf
  100. Mullins GL, Burmester CH (2010) Relation of growth and development to mineral nutrition. In: Stewart JM, Oosterhuis DM, Heitholt JJ, Mauney JR (eds) Physiological of cotton. Springer Publishing Co., New York, pp 97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Naik VC, Kumbhare S, Kranthi S, Satija U, Kranthi KR (2018) Field evolved-resistance of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to transgenic Bt-cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in India. Pest Manag Sci 74:2544–2554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Northup BK, Rao SC (2015) Green manures in continuous wheat systems affect grain yield and nitrogen content. Agron J 107:1666–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Paradelo R, van Oort F, Chenu C (2013) Water-dispersible clay in bare fallow soils after 80 years of continuous fertilizer addition. Geoderma 200-201:40–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Parajulee MN, Montandon R, Slosser JE (1997) Relay intercropping to enhance abundance of insect predators of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in Texas cotton. Int J Pest Manag 43:227–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pernes-Debuyser A, Tessier D (2004) Soil physical properties affected by long-term fertilization. Eur J Soil Sci 55:505–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Potdar MV, Anders M, Sharma MM (1996) Yield advantages and economic returns from pigeon pea/cotton strip intercropping rotations on a vertisol in the Indian semi-arid tropics. In: Ito O, Johansen C, Adu-Gyamfi JJ, Katayama K, JVDKK R, Rego TJ (eds) Dynamics of roots and nitrogen in cropping systems of the semi-arid tropics. Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, pp 59–72Google Scholar
  107. Pray CE, Huang J, Hu R, Rozelle S (2002) Five years of Bt cotton in China: The benefits continue. Plant J 31:423–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pray C, Ma D, Huang J, Qiao F (2001) Impact of Bt cotton in China. World Dev 29:813–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pyke B, Rice R, Sabine B, Zalucki MP (1987) The push–pull strategy–behavioural control of Heliothis. Aust. Cotton Grow. May–July, 7–9Google Scholar
  110. Qaim M (2003) Bt cotton in India: Field trial results and economic projections. World Dev 31:2115–2127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rafique E, Mahmood-ul-Hassan M, Rashid A, Chaudhary MF (2012) Nutrient balances as affected by integrated nutrient and crop residue management in cotton-wheat system in aridisols. I. Nitrogen. J Plant Nutr 35:591–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rahman MH, Ahmad A, Wang X, Wajid A, Nasim W, Hussain M, Ahmad B, Ahmad I, Ali Z, Ishaque W, Awais M, Shelia V, Ahmad S, Fahad S, Alam M, Ullah H, Hoogenboom G (2018) Multi-model projections of future climate and climate change impacts uncertainty assessment for cotton production in Pakistan. Agric For Meteorol 253-254:94–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rajput MT, Tahir SS, Ahmed B, Arain MA (2008) Check list of the weeds found in cotton crops, cultivated in Taluka Ubauro, district Sukkur, Pakistan. Pak J Bot 40:65–70Google Scholar
  114. Ramalho FS, Fernandes FS, Nascimento AR, Nascimento Junior JL, Malaquias JB, Silva CA (2012) Assessment of fennel aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their predators in fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers. J Econ Entomol 105:113–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ramprakash, Prasad M (2000) Effect of nitrogen, chlormequat chloride and farmyard manure applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and their residual effect on succeeding wheat (Triticum aestivum) crop. Indian J Agron 45:263–268Google Scholar
  116. Rao VP (1991) A study on intercropping of cotton with grain legumes under rainfed conditions. J Res APAU 19:73–74Google Scholar
  117. Ratnadass A, Fernandes P, Avelino J, Habib R (2012) Plant species diversity for sustainable management of crop pests and diseases in agroecosystems: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 32:273–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Reddy MS, Natarajan M, Rao MR, Willy RW, Ong CK (1985) Cropping system for rainfed situations with particular reference to ICRISAT an experience. Paper presented in: national symposium on cropping system at Karnal, p. 13Google Scholar
  119. Rocheser IJ, Peoples M (2005) Growing vetches in irrigated cotton systems inputs of fixed N, N fertilizer savings, and cotton productivity. Plant Soil 271:251–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rochester IJ, Peoples MB, Hullugalle NR, Gault RR, Constable GA (2001) Using legumes to enhance nitrogen fertility and improve soil condition in cotton cropping systems. Field Crops Res 70:27–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Saeed M, Shahid MRM, Jabar A, Ullah E, Khan MB (1999) Agroeconomic assessment of different cotton-based inter-relay cropping systems in two geometrical patterns. Int J Agric Biol 4:234–237Google Scholar
  122. Sajjad A, Anjum SA, Ahmad R, Waraich EA (2018) Relay cropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) improves the profitability of cotton-wheat cropping system in Punjab, Pakistan. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:782–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Salma S, Rehman S, Shah MA (2012) Rainfall trends in different climate zones of Pakistan. Pak J Meterol 9:37–47Google Scholar
  124. Sarkar RK, Chakraborty A, Mazumdar RC (1995) Effect of intercropping of oilseed and pulse crops in upland cotton for productivity and monetary advantage in the system. Indian J Agric Sci 65:246–249Google Scholar
  125. Schader C, Zaller JG, Köpke U (2005) Cotton-Basil intercropping: Effects on pests, yields and economical parameters in an organic field in Fayoum, Egypt. Biol Agric Hort 23:59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sekloka E, Sabi AK, Zinsou VA, Aboudou A, Ndogbe CK, Afouda L, Baba-Moussa L (2018) Phenological, morphological and agronomic characterization of sixteen genotypes of cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in rainfed condition in Benin. J Plant Breeding Crop Sci 10:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shah MA, Farooq M, Hussain M (2016) Productivity and profitability of cotton–wheat system as influenced by relay intercropping of insect resistant transgenic cotton in bed planted wheat. Eur J Agron 75:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Shah MA, Farooq M, Hussain M (2017) Evaluation of transplanting Bt cotton in a cotton–wheat cropping system. Exp Agric 53:227–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Shantharam S, Sullia SB, Shivakumara GS (2008) Peer review contestations in the era of transgenic crops. Curr Sci 95:167–168Google Scholar
  130. Showler AT, Greenberg SM (2003) Effects of weeds on selected arthropod herbivore and natural enemy populations, and on cotton growth and yield. Environ Entomol 32:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Singh J, Babar S, Abraham S, Venugopalan MV, Majumdar G (2012) Fertilization of high density, rainfed cotton grown on vertisols of India. Better Crops 96:26–28Google Scholar
  132. Singh M, Sidhu HS, Mahal JS, Manes GS, Jat ML, Mahal AK, Singh P, Singh Y (2016) Relay sowing of wheat in the cotton–wheat cropping system in North-West India: technical and economic aspects. Exp Agric 53:539–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Singh RJ, Ahlawat IPS (2014) Effects of transgenic cotton-based cropping systems and their fertility levels on succeeding wheat crop. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 45:2385–2396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Singh RJ, Ahlawat IPS, Singh S (2013) Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on soil fertility and biology under field conditions in subtropical Inceptisol. Environ Monit Assess 185:485–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Singh RJ, Ahlawat IPS, Gangaiah B (2009) Direct and residual effects of nitrogen requirement in Bt cotton–wheat cropping system. Indian J Agron 54:401–408Google Scholar
  136. Sivakumar SD (2004) Performance of vegetable intercropping systems and sources of nutrients supply on sustainable yield of rainfed cotton. Ph.D. Dissertation, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai. Tamil Nadu Agric. Univ., Coimbatore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  137. Sosnoskie LM, Culpepper AS (2014) Glyphosate-resistant palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) increases herbicide use, tillage, and hand-weeding in Georgia cotton. Weed Sci 62:393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Stephenson DO, Brecke BJ (2010) Weed management in single- vs. twin-row cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technol 24:275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sui N, Zhou Z, Yu C, Liu R, Yang C, Zhang F, Song G, Meng Y (2015) Yield and potassium use efficiency of cotton with wheat straw incorporation and potassium fertilization on soils with various conditions in the wheat-cotton rotation system. Field Crops Res 172:132–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sultan MS, El-Kassaby AT, Ghonema MH, Ageez AA, Abd-Allah AMM (2012a) Relay intercropping wheat and cotton studies: i- effect of times of two last irrigations and ridge width on growth and yield of wheat. J Plant Prod Mansoura Univ 3:679–689Google Scholar
  141. Sultan MS, El-Kassaby AT, Ghonema MH, Ogeaz AA, Abd-Allah AMM (2012b) Relay intercropping wheat and cotton studies: II-Effect of sowing date and ridge width on cotton. J Biol Sci 12:349–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Suriyagoda L, De Costa WAJM, Lambers H (2014) Growth and phosphorus nutrition of rice when inorganic fertiliser application is partly replaced by straw under varying moisture availability in sandy and clay soils. Plant Soil 384:53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tabashnik BE, Bre’vault T, Carrie’re Y (2013) Insect resistance to Bt crops: lessons from the first billion acres. Nat Biotechnol 31:510–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tabashnik BE, Carriere Y (2017) Surge in insect resistance to transgenic crops and prospects for sustainability. Nat Biotechnol 35:926–935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Takahashi S, Uenosono S, Ono S (2003) Short- and long-term effects of rice straw application on nitrogen uptake by crops and nitrogen mineralization under flooded and upland conditions. Plant Soil 251:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tariq M, Afzal MN, Muhammad D, Ahmad S, Shahzad AN, Kiran A, Wakeel A (2018) Relationship of tissue potassium content with yield and fiber quality components of Bt cotton as influenced by potassium application methods. Field Crops Res 229:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tariq M, Yasmeen A, Ahmad S, Hussain N, Afzal MN, Hasanuzzaman M (2017) Shedding of fruiting structures in cotton: factors, compensation and prevention. Trop Subtrop Agroecosyst 20(2):251–262Google Scholar
  148. Tillman PG, Mullinix BG Jr (2004) Grain sorghum as a trap crop for corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton. Environ Entomol 33:1371–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Torres JB, Ruberson JR, Whitehouse M (2009) Transgenic cotton for sustainable pest management: a review. In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Sustainable agriculture reviews: organic farming, pest control and remediation of soil pollutants, 1st edn. Springer, New York, pp 45–82Google Scholar
  150. Turkhede AB, Nagdeve MB, Karunakar AP, Gabhane VV, Mohod VD, Mali RS (2017) Diversification in cotton based cropping system under mechanization in rainfed condition of vidarbha of Maharashtra, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6:2189–2206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Udeigwe TK, Teboh JM, Eze PN, Stietiya MH, Kumar V, Hendrix J, Mascagni HJ Jr, Ying T, Kandakji T (2015) Implications of leading crop production practices on environmental quality and human health. J Environ Manag 151:267–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Usman M, Ahmad A, Ahmad S, Irshad M, Khaliq T, Wajid A, Hussain K, Nasim W, Chattha TM, Trethowan R, Hoogenboom G (2009) Development and application of crop water stress index for scheduling irrigation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under semiarid environment. J Food Agric Environ 7(3&4):386–391Google Scholar
  153. Vaiyapuri K, Amanullah MM, Rajendran K, Sathyamoorthi K (2010) Intercropping unconventional green manures in cotton: An organic approach for multiple benefits – A review. Asian J Plant Sci 9:223–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Venugopalan MV, Pundarikakshudu R (1999) Long-term effect of nutrient management and cropping system on cotton yield and soil fertility in rainfed vertisols. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 55:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Vitale J, Glick H, Greenplate JT, Abdeennadher M, Traoré O (2008) Second-generation Bt cotton field trials in Burkina Faso: Analyzing the potential benefits to West African farmers. Crop Sci 48:1958–1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wang Q, Han S, Zhang L, Zhang D, van der Werf W, Evers JB, Sun H, Su Z, Zhang S (2016) Density responses and spatial distribution of cotton yield and yield components in jujube (Zizyphus jujube)/cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) agroforestry. Eur J Agron 79:58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wang XB, Cai DX, Hoogmoed WB, Perdok UD, Oenema O (2007) Crop residue, manure and fertilizer in dryland maize under reduced tillage in northern China: I grain yields and nutrient use efficiencies. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 79:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Wang ZJ, Lin H, Huang JK, Hu RF, Rozelle S, Pray C (2009) Bt Cotton in China: are secondary insect infestations offsetting the benefits in farmer fields? Agric Sci China 8:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Werth J, Boucher L, Thornby D, Walker S, Charles G (2013) Changes in weed species since the introduction of glyphosate-resistant cotton. Crop Pasture Sci 64:791–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Werth J, Thornby D, Walker S (2012) Assessing weeds at risk of evolving glyphosate resistance in Australian sub-tropical glyphosate-resistant cotton systems. Crop Pasture Sci 62:1002–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Williams EJ, Rochester I, Constable G (2011) Maximizing the profitability of cotton cropping systems with legumes. Available at: http://www.insidecotton.com/jspui/bitstream/1/418/1/5100601_Emma_Williams.pdf
  162. Xu N, Fok M, Bai L, Zhou Z (2008) Effectiveness and chemical pest control of Bt-cotton in the Yangtze River, Valley, China. Crop Prot 27:1269–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Yang HQ, Cui WG (2010) Cotton industry in China, status and development strategies. Crops 5:13–17. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  164. Yu C, Wang X, Hu B, Yang C, Sui N, Liu R, Meng Y, Zhou Z (2016) Effects of wheat straw incorporation in cotton-wheat double cropping system on nutrient status and growth in cotton. Field Crops Res 197:39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Zaman M, Mirza MS, Irem S, Zafar Y, Mehmoob-ur-Rehman (2015) A temporal expression of Cry1Ac protein in cotton plant and its impact on soil health. Int J Agric Biol 17:280–288Google Scholar
  166. Zeng XY, Ma YT, Ma LR (2007) Utilization of straw in biomass energy in China. Renew Sust Energ Rev 11:976–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Zhang L (2007) Productivity and resource use in cotton and wheat relay intercropping. Ph.D. thesis Wageningen University. ISBN: 978-90-8504-759-9Google Scholar
  168. Zhang L, Li Y (1997) The technical approach on wheat-cotton double cropping system sustainable development in Huanghuaihai Plain. Proceedings of International Symposium of Sustainable Agricultural Technologies (ISSAT’97), BeijingGoogle Scholar
  169. Zhang L, Spiertz JHJ, Zhang S, Li B, van der Werf W (2008c) Nitrogen economy and use efficiency in cotton and wheat relay intercropping system. Plant Soil 303:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Zhang L, van der Werf W, Bastiaans L, Zhang S, Li B, Spiertz JHJ (2008b) Light interception and utilization in relay intercrops of wheat and cotton. Field Crops Res 107:29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Zhang L, van der Werf W, Zhang S, Li B, Spiertz JHJ (2008a) Temperature-mediated developmental delay may limit yield of cotton in relay intercrops with wheat. Field Crops Res 106:258–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Zhang L, van der Werf W, Zhang S, Li B, Spiertz JHJ (2007) Growth, yield and quality of wheat and cotton in relay strip intercropping systems. Field Crops Res 103:178–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Zhang R, Ren L, Wang C, Lin R, Tian C (2004) Cotton aphid predators on alfalfa and their impact on cotton aphid abundance. Appl Entomol Zool 39:235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Zhang ZP (2003) Development of chemical weed control and integrated weed management in China. Weed Biol Manag 3:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Zhao JH, Ho P, Azadi H (2011) Benefits of Bt cotton counterbalanced by secondary pests? Perceptions of ecological change in China. Environ Monit Assess 173:985–994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Zohry AA (2005) Effect of relaying cotton on some crops under bio-mineral N fertilization rates on yield and yield components. Ann Agric Sci 431:89–103Google Scholar
  177. Zohry AE, Ouda S (2015) Management of crops intensification in Egypt to overcome water scarcity. Global J Adv Res 2:1824–1831Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amar Matloob
    • 1
    Email author
  • Farhena Aslam
    • 2
  • Haseeb Ur Rehman
    • 2
  • Abdul Khaliq
    • 3
  • Shakeel Ahmad
    • 2
  • Azra Yasmeen
    • 2
  • Nazim Hussain
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental ScienceMNS-University of AgricultureMultanPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and TechnologyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  3. 3.Department of AgronomyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations