Ecological Management of Cotton Insect Pests

  • Munir AhmadEmail author
  • Wali Muhammad
  • Asif Sajjad


Ecological pest management (EPM) shares many fundamentals of integrated pest management (IPM) considering the stability of natural ecosystems as the most important goal along with good yielding crop cultivation. Cotton is grown in less than 10% of cultivable area but it is the only crop which share more than 45% usage of insecticides. Considering the harmful impacts of pesticides on agroecosystem, stability of natural environment and higher biodiversity in cotton zones is suggested through adopting whole system management approaches. In this approach, combination of many crops, lands, natural vegetation, and cultural practices can suppress the pest populations in cotton areas. Weed management through biocontrol agents is also supported in this system which increases food for predators and parasitoid development ultimately helping to suppress cotton pests. The IPM tactics like classical biological control, clean cropping, crop rotation, etc., can also be easily adopted in ecological based pest management. Soil and natural resources conservation-based biological control will be the vital component of EPM replacing the IPM in the future. It is a fundamental shift to total system approach with “built-in” preventive control measures addressing the increased demand for organic agriculture. Sustainable organic agriculture is interlinked with precise knowledge of multitrophic nutritional levels and their efficient management for pest management strategies. The pesticide or other chemical option will be used at last by adopting precision agriculture equipment, e.g., specific site application through sensor-based applicators (drone sprayer mounted with GPS and WSN).


Ecological pest management Cotton pest control IPM EPM Organic agriculture 



Bacillus thuringiensis


Copper inducible elicitor




Extrafloral nectar


Ecological pest management


Economic threshold level


Genetically modified


Genetically modified organisms


Global positioning system


Host-plant resistance


Integrated nutrient management


Integrated pest management


Integrated weed management


Precision agriculture


Variable rate technology


Wireless sensor network


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EntomologyPir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture UniversityRawalpindiPakistan
  2. 2.Agriculture Pest Warning & Quality Control of Pesticides, Government of PunjabLayyahPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental SciencesThe Islamia University of BahawalpurBahawalpurPakistan

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