Environmental Problems of Human Settlements and Countermeasures Based on Ecological Engineering

  • Jianfeng ZhangEmail author


China’s urbanization rate has exceeded 50% by 2018. This rate is far lower than the average of nearly 80% in developed countries. From the perspective of modernization and development, China’s urbanization rate is expected to continue increasing in the next decade or two. A considerable rural surplus labor and population migrates to cities annually and generates a substantial increase in investment and a rapid increase in consumption. Urban development provides multiple levels of human resources. However, the urbanization process is not a simple increase in the proportion of the population and expansion of the urban area. What is more important is the realization of an important shift from “township” to “city” in aspects such as industrial structure, employment mode, human settlement environment, and social security. Promoting urbanization and improving the living environment will be one of the important tasks for China in the future to build a prosperous society and achieve two “100-year goals.” This task is also consistent with the goals of “Everyone has adequate housing” and “Improving the quality of life of people around the world” proposed by the Habitat Agenda of the United Nations at the Second Habitat Conference. With the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization in China, environmental pollution has occurred at different degrees in urban and rural areas. Environmental problems, such as smog and dust storms in North China, acid rain in the southwest, and water pollution in coastal areas, have had a serious impact on human settlements. One of the ways to deal with these environmental problems is to implement ecological engineering in human settlements. Environmental protection must be considered when building cities and villages. Countries must pay attention to the greening and enhancement of cities and villages, and provide people with leisure spaces, healthy environments, and beautiful communities.


Human settlements Environmental problem Ecological engineering Beautiful communities Industrialization Urbanization 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Subtropical Forestry of Chinese Academy of ForestryHangzhouChina

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