Fabrication of Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and their Composites: Candidates for Resorbable Sutures

  • Deepshikha Das
  • Neha Mulchandani
  • Amit Kumar
  • Vimal KatiyarEmail author
Part of the Materials Horizons: From Nature to Nanomaterials book series (MHFNN)


Sutures are known to facilitate wound healing and recently, a significant attention has been laid on the development of different classes of materials, their properties to enhance tissue approximation and wound closure. The advancements in the suture technology have introduced different types of sutures such as barbed sutures, antimicrobial sutures, drug-eluting sutures. The biostable and bioresorbable materials have received importance in augmentation and proper growth of the tissues due to their extraordinary characteristics. Furthermore, the biodegradable polymeric sutures have been explored for suture applications due to their efficiency, both in terms of property and application. In this regard, the current chapter highlights the various biodegradable polymers as possible candidates for sutures along with their essential properties and applications. Moreover, the utilization of different biofillers for fabricating sutures along with various fabrication techniques is discussed. Additionally, an impact is laid on the development of ‘stimuli-responsive sutures’ in order to tailor the behavior of the suture for subjected applications by using external agents or stimulus. These materials respond to small changes that can be both physical and chemical environment. Electric field, magnetic field, radiation are some of the stimulants that can be used based on the polymer used and nature of the application (cell adhesion, nerve regeneration, drug delivery, degradation control, antimicrobial, etc.) of suture. Magnetic responsive composite materials possess fine tuning properties which find their potential in biomedical, cell guidance and controlled drug release study (hyperthermia effect). A good understanding in terms of application and physical phenomena is portrayed which would help in developing the stimuli-responsive materials and devices in the biomedical field.


Biodegradable polymers Composites Bioresorbable Stimuli-responsive sutures 


  1. 1.
    Hayashi T (1994) Biodegradable polymers for biomedical uses. Prog Polym Sci 19(4):663–702.
  2. 2.
    Törmälä P, Pohjonen T, Rokkanen P (1998) Bioabsorbable polymers: materials technology and surgical applications. Proc Inst Mech Eng H 212(2):101–111. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pillai CKS, Sharma CP (2010) Absorbable polymeric surgical sutures: chemistry, production, properties, biodegradability, and performance. J Biomater Appl 25(4):291–366. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chu CC, Von Fraunhofer JA, Greisler HP (1996) Wound closure biomaterials and devices. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moy RL, Waldman B, Hein DW (1992) A review of sutures and suturing techniques. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 18(9):785–795. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dennis C, Sethu S, Nayak S, Mohan L, Morsi Y, Manivasagam G (2016) Suture materials—current and emerging trends. J Biomed Mater Res A 104(6):1544–1559. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roberts ADG, Hart DM (1983) Polyglycolic acid and catgut sutures, with and without oral proteolytic enzymes, in the healing of episiotomies. BJOG 90(7):650–653. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singhal JP, Singh H, Ray AR (1988) Absorbable suture materials: preparation and properties. Polym Rev 28(3–4):475–502. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li J, Yuan XY (2006) Research progresses on synthetic absorbable sutures. J Tianjin Polytech Univ 25:18–21Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hon LQ, Ganeshan A, Thomas SM, Warakaulle D, Jagdish J, Uberoi R (2009) Vascular closure devices: a comparative overview. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol Title(s) 38(1): 33–43.
  11. 11.
    Eling B, Gogolewski S, Pennings AJ (1982). Biodegradable materials of poly(l-lactic acid): 1. Melt-spun and solution-spun fibres. Polymer 23(11):1587–1593.
  12. 12.
    Dunn DL (2005) Wound closer manual. Ethicon, Inc., Johnson and Johnson CompanyGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stibal W, Schwarz R, Kemp U, Bender K, Weger F, Stein M (2000) Fibers 3. General production technology, Ullmann’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistryGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eling B, Gogolewski S, Pennings AJ (1982) Biodegradable materials of poly (l-lactic acid): 1. Melt-spun and solution-spun fibres. Polymer 23(11):1587–1593.,90176-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Charuchinda A, Molloy R, Siripitayananon J, Molloy N, Sriyai M (2003) Factors influencing the small-scale melt spinning of poly (ε-caprolactone) monofilament fibres. Polym Int 52(7):1175–1181. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ziabicki A (1976) Fundamentals of fibre formation. Wiley-Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gupta B, Revagade N, Hilborn J (2007) Poly (lactic acid) fiber: an overview. ProgPolymSci 32(4):455–482. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gogolewski S, Pennings AJ (1985) High-modulus fibres of nylon-6 prepared by a dry-spinning method. Polymer 26(9):1394–1400. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Leenslag JW, Pennings AJ (1987) High-strength poly (l-lactide) fibres by a dry-spinning/hot-drawing process. Polymer 28(10):1695–1702.,90012-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Greiner A, Wendorff JH (2007) Electrospinning: a fascinating method for the preparation of ultrathin fibers. Angew Chemi Int Ed 46(30):5670–5703. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Um IC, Ki CS, Kweon H, Lee KG, Ihm DW, Park YH (2004) Wet spinning of silk polymer: II. Effect of drawing on the structural characteristics and properties of filament. Int J Biol Macromol 34(1–2): 107–119.
  22. 22.
    Hu X, Liu S, Zhou G, Huang Y, Xie Z, Jing X (2014) Electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers for drug delivery applications. J Control Release 185:12–21. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Matthews JA, Wnek GE, Simpson DG, Bowlin GL (2002) Electrospinning of collagen nanofibers. Biomacromol 3(2):232–238. Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mohanty AK, Misra M, Hinrichsen GI (2000) Biofibres, biodegradable polymers and biocomposites: an overview. Macromol Mater Eng 276(1):1–24. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kyrikou I, Briassoulis D (2007) Biodegradation of agricultural plastic films: a critical review. J Polym Environ 15(2):125–150. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Amass W, Amass A, Tighe B (1998) A review of biodegradable polymers: uses, current developments in the synthesis and characterization of biodegradable polyesters, blends of biodegradable polymers and recent advances in biodegradation studies. Polym Int 47(2):89–144.;2-FCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Charnley J (1960) Anchorage of the femoral head prosthesis to the shaft of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg. British 42(1):28–30Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kalia S, Dufresne A, Cherian B M, Kaith BS, Avérous L, Njuguna J, Nassiopoulos E (2011) Cellulose-based bio-and nanocomposites: a review. Int J Polym Sci 1–35.
  29. 29.
    Benicewicz BC, Hopper PK (1991) Polymers for absorbable surgical sutures—Part II. J Bioact Compat Polym 6:64–94.
  30. 30.
    Chen FM, Liu X (2016) Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering. Prog Polym Sci 53:86–168. Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bennett RG (1988) Selection of wound closure materials. J Am Acad Dermatol 18(4):619–637.,70083-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    B Kim, Atala A (2001) Encyclopedia of materials: science and technologyGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Song R, Murphy M, Li C, Ting K, Soo C, Zheng Z (2018) Current development of biodegradable polymeric materials for biomedical applications. Drug Des Dev Ther 12:3117–3145.
  34. 34.
    Palmer LC, Newcomb CJ, Kaltz SR, Spoerke ED, Stupp SI (2008) Biomimetic systems for hydroxyapatite mineralization inspired by bone and enamel. Chem Rev 108(11):4754–4783. Scholar
  35. 35.
    Siddiqui H, Pickering K, Mucalo M (2018) A review on the use of hydroxyapatite-carbonaceous structure composites in bone replacement materials for strengthening purposes. Materials 11(10):1813. Scholar
  36. 36.
    Verheyen CCPM, De Wijn JR, Van Blitterswijk CA, De Groot K (1992) Evaluation of hydroxylapatite/poly(l-lactide) composites: mechanical behavior. J Biomed Mater Res 26(10):1277–1296. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Saifuddin N, Raziah AZ, Junizah AR (2012) Carbon nanotubes: a review on structure and their interaction with proteins. J Chem 2013:1–18. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cheng Q, Rutledge K, Jabbarzadeh E (2013) Carbon nanotube–poly (lactide-co-glycolide) composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Ann Biomed Eng 41(5):904–916. Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pan L, Pei X, He R, Wan Q, Wang J (2012) Multiwall carbon nanotubes/polycaprolactone composites for bone tissue engineering application. Colloids Surf B 93:226–234. Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kashiwazaki H, Kishiya Y, Matsuda A, Yamaguchi K, Iizuka T, Tanaka J, Inoue N (2009) Fabrication of porous chitosan/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites: their mechanical and biological properties. Biomed Mater Eng 19(2–3):133–140. Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gupta A, Katiyar V (2017) Cellulose functionalized high molecular weight stereocomplex polylactic acid biocomposite films with improved gas barrier, thermomechanical properties. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 5(8):6835–6844. Scholar
  42. 42.
    Patwa R, Kumar A, Katiyar V (2018) Crystallization kinetics, morphology, and hydrolytic degradation of novel bio-based poly (lactic acid)/crystalline silk nano-discs nanobiocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 135(33):46590. Scholar
  43. 43.
    De Simone S, Gallo AL, Paladini F, Sannino A, Pollini M (2014) Development of silver nano-coatings on silk sutures as a novel approach against surgical infections. J Mater Sci Mater Med 25(9):2205–2214. Scholar
  44. 44.
    Galaev IY, Mattiasson B (1999) ‘Smart’ polymers and what they could do in biotechnology and medicine. Trends Biotechnol 17(8):335–340.,01345-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    De las Heras Alarcón C, Pennadam S, Alexander C (2005) Stimuli responsive polymers for biomedical applications. Chem Soc Rev 34(3):276–285.
  46. 46.
    De Santis R, Russo A, Gloria A, D’Amora U, Russo T, Panseri S, Wilde CJ (2015) Towards the design of 3D fiber-deposited poly (-caprolactone)/iron-doped hydroxyapatite nanocomposite magnetic scaffolds for bone regeneration. J Biomed Nanotechnol 11(7):1236–1246. Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chertok B, Moffat BA, David AE, Yu F, Bergemann C, Ross BD, Yang VC (2008) Iron oxide nanoparticles as a drug delivery vehicle for MRI monitored magnetic targeting of brain tumors. Biomaterials 29(4):487–496. Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fuchigami T, Kawamura R, Kitamoto Y, Nakagawa M, Namiki Y (2012) A magnetically guided anti-cancer drug delivery system using porous FePt capsules. Biomaterials 33(5):1682–1687. Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jeong SI, Jun ID, Choi MJ, Nho YC, Lee YM, Shin H (2008) Development of electroactive and elastic nanofibers that contain polyaniline and poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) for the control of cell adhesion. Macromol Biosci 8(7):627–637. Scholar
  50. 50.
    Guo Y, Li M, Mylonakis A, Han J, MacDiarmid AG, Chen X, Wei Y (2007) Electroactive oligoaniline-containing self-assembled monolayers for tissue engineering applications. Biomacromol 8(10):3025–3034. Scholar
  51. 51.
    Huang L, Zhuang X, Hu J, Lang L, Zhang P, Wang Y, Jing X (2008) Synthesis of biodegradable and electroactive multiblock polylactide and aniline pentamer copolymer for tissue engineering applications. Biomacromol 9(3):850–858. Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hu J, Huang L, Zhuang X, Zhang P, Lang L, Chen X, Jing X (2008) Electroactive aniline pentamer cross-linking chitosan for stimulation growth of electrically sensitive cells. Biomacromol 9(10):2637–2644. Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rivers TJ, Hudson TW, Schmidt CE (2002) Synthesis of a novel, biodegradable electrically conducting polymer for biomedical applications. Adv Funct Mater 12(1):33–37.;2-ECrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hirokawa Y, Tanaka T (1984) Volume phase transition in a non-ionic gel. AIP Conf Proc 107(1):203–208. Scholar
  55. 55.
    Peng B, Grishkewich N, Yao Z, Han X, Liu H, Tam KC (2012) Self-assembly behavior of thermoresponsive oligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylates random copolymer. Acs Macro Lett 1(5):632–635. Scholar
  56. 56.
    Marsano E, Bianchi E, Vicini S, Compagnino L, Sionkowska A, Skopińska J, Wiśniewski M (2005) Stimuli responsive gels based on interpenetrating network of chitosan and poly (vinylpyrrolidone). Polymer 46(5):1595–1600. Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dai S, Ravi P, Tam KC (2008) pH-responsive polymers: synthesis, properties and applications. Soft Matter 4(3):435–449. Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yan T, Chen X, Zhang T, Yu J, Jiang X, Hu W, Jiao F (2018) A magnetic pH-induced textile fabric with switchable wettability for intelligent oil/water separation. Chem Eng J 347:52–63. Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hua D, Jiang J, Kuang L, Jiang J, Zheng W, Liang H (2011) Smart chitosan-based stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic pharmaceuticals. Macromolecules 44(6):1298–1302. Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zhang L, Guo R, Yang M, Jiang X, Liu B (2007) Thermo and pH dual-responsive nanoparticles for anti-cancer drug delivery. Adv Mater 19(19):2988–2992. Scholar
  61. 61.
    Roy D, Cambre JN, Sumerlin BS (2010) Future perspectives and recent advances in stimuli-responsive materials. Prog Polym Sci 35(1–2):278–301. Scholar
  62. 62.
    Toledano S, Williams RJ, Jayawarna V, Ulijn RV (2006) Enzyme-triggered self-assembly of peptide hydrogels via reversed hydrolysis. J Am Chem Soc 128(4):1070–1071. Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kim SS, Park MS, Jeon O, Choi CY, Kim BS (2006) Poly (lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 27(8):1399–1409. Scholar
  64. 64.
    Okada T, Hayashi T, Ikada Y (1992) Degradation of collagen suture in vitro and in vivo. Biomaterials 13(7):448–454. Scholar
  65. 65.
    Im JN, Kim JK, Kim HK, In CH, Lee KY, Park WH (2007) In vitro and in vivo degradation behaviors of synthetic absorbable bicomponent monofilament suture prepared with poly (p-dioxanone) and its copolymer. Polym Degrad Stab 92(4):667–674. Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mäkelä P, Pohjonen T, Törmälä P, Waris T, Ashammakhi N (2002) Strength retention properties of self-reinforced poly l-lactide (SR-PLLA) sutures compared with polyglyconate (Maxon®) and polydioxanone (PDS) sutures. An in vitro study. Biomaterials 23(12):2587–2592.,00396-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lee DH, Kwon TY, Kim KH, Kwon ST, Cho DH, Jang SH, Son JS, Lee KB (2014) Anti-inflammatory drug releasing absorbable surgical sutures using poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) particle carriers. Polym Bull 71(8):1933–1946. Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cannizzo SA, Roe SC, Harms CA, Stoskopf MK (2016) Effect of water temperature on the hydrolysis of two absorbable sutures used in fish surgery. Facets 1(1):44–54. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepshikha Das
    • 1
  • Neha Mulchandani
    • 1
  • Amit Kumar
    • 1
  • Vimal Katiyar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahati, KamrupIndia

Personalised recommendations