Distribution of Enhalus acoroides According to Waves and Currents

  • Kota NakaseEmail author
  • Tomokazu Murakami
  • Hiroyoshi Kohno
  • Akiyuki Ukai
  • Akira Mizutani
  • Shinya Shimokawa
Part of the Springer Oceanography book series (SPRINGEROCEAN)


Enhalus acoroides, tropical sea grass also known as tape grass, is distributed throughout the Yaeyama Islands. It is listed as a vulnerable species (VU) on the Red List of the Ministry of Environment of Japan. Because this species is known to have poor seed dispersal characteristics, necessary conditions of its distribution must be elucidated to support its preservation. We have compared the present community distribution of E. acoroides with the horizontal distribution of numerically reproduced wave height and bottom velocity. Moreover, we have derived the conditions of water depth, waves, and bottom velocity required for the formation of E. acoroides distribution. The periphery of distribution of communities was determined using external forces during a high-wave period such as a typhoon period or a winter monsoon period.


Enhalus acoroides Wave height Bottom velocity Physics simulation 



The authors extend their deepest gratitude to undergraduate and graduate students of the School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University, for their great endeavors on the surveillance study of E. acoroides.

This study has been conducted under joint research by Okinawa Regional Research Center of Tokai University, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience, and Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd.


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Data Source

  1. AMeDAS: Japan Meteorological Agency (2008–2009, 2012–2013, 2015). 15 July 2019
  2. GPV: Japan Meteorological Business Support Center (2008–2009, 2012–202013, 2015). 15 July 2019

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kota Nakase
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tomokazu Murakami
    • 2
  • Hiroyoshi Kohno
    • 3
  • Akiyuki Ukai
    • 1
  • Akira Mizutani
    • 3
  • Shinya Shimokawa
    • 2
  1. 1.Environment Business DivisionPenta-Ocean Construction. Co., Ltd.TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Storm, Flood and Landslide Research DivisionNational Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster ResilienceTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Okinawa Regional Research CenterTokai UniversityYaeyamaJapan

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