Circular Economy in Malaysia
Circular economy is a concept that aims to improve resource efficiency by minimizing resource consumption and waste generation. The implementation of circular economy can be conducted at three levels: in single enterprise or group of enterprises, in a group of collocated firms and at the city or municipal level. Currently, implementation of circular economy in Malaysia is at firm level. There is a lack of legal framework on the implementation of circular economy in Malaysia. However, there are certain sections and regulations in Environmental Quality Act 1974, Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007 and in Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulation 2005, respectively, that promote resource circulation. Nationwide initiatives taken to promote circular economy are inclusion of integration of sustainable production and consumption, reduction of 40% of greenhouse gas emissions intensity from GDP compared to 2005 level and 22% of recycling of MSW, in Eleventh Malaysian Plan. Additionally, SWCorp has launched SWCorp Strategic Plan to promote sustainable solid waste management services, and CIDB has initiated CITP that has a target of incorporating 20% of recycled construction and demolition waste (tonnage) by year 2020 from baseline of 2016. Also, there are guidelines on coprocessing and proposals on establishment of industrial ecology by DOE. A few case studies show implementation of circular economy in manufacturing industries. The benefits of these implementations were reduction in energy and resource consumption, reduction in waste generation, protection of environment and human health, cost savings by reusing or recycling waste and additional profit gains by selling waste to potential buyers. Several opportunities of sustainable waste management and resource circulation have been highlighted in this chapter such as manufacturing of bioproducts and butanol from biomass to coprocessing between ELVs and construction industry. To successfully implement circular economy, top-down and bottom-up approach is required, and currently, Malaysia does not have explicit top-down and bottom-up approaches.
- Agamuthu, P. (2001). Solid waste: Principles and management. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya.Google Scholar
- Aiming for Zero Construction Waste by 2030—Metro News: The Star Online. (2015). Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/metro/community/2015/11/20/aiming-for-zero-construction-waste-by-2030-seminar-looks-at-adopting-sustainable-practices-in-a-bid/. Accessed on August 20, 2018.
- Begum, R. A., Siwar, C., Pereira, J. J., & Jaafar, A. H. (2007). Implementation of waste management and minimisation in the Construction Industry of Malaysia. Resources, Conservation C.-S. and Recycling, 51, 190–202.Google Scholar
- Biofuel Annual 2017—GAIN Report. (2017). Retrieved from https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Biofuels%20Annual_Kuala%20Lumpur_Malaysia_10-24-2017.pdf. Accessed on September 10, 2018.
- CITP KPIs for sustainable development. (2018). Retrieved from http://www.cidb.gov.my/index.php/en/focus-areas/sustainable-construction/citp-kpis-for-sustainable-development. Accessed on August 2, 2018.
- Department of Environment (2018a) Acts. Retrieved from https://www.doe.gov.my/portalv1/en/tentang-jas/perundangan/akta-kaedah-peraturan-arahan-2/akta. Accessed on August 2, 2018.
- Department of Environment (2018b) Regulations. Retrieved from https://www.doe.gov.my/portalv1/en/tentang-jas/perundangan/akta-kaedah-peraturan-arahan-2/peraturan. Accessed on August 2, 2018.
- Eleventh Malaysian Plan, 2016–2020. (2018). Retrieved from http://epu.gov.my/en/rmk/eleventh-malaysia-plan-2016-2020. Accessed on August 2, 2018.
- Environmental Quality Report—Enviro Knowledge Center. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://enviro.doe.gov.my/ekmc/. Accessed on July 27, 2018.
- Fauziah, S. H., & Agamuthu, P. (2003). Municipal solid waste management: a comparative study on selected landfill in Selangor. In Proceedings of Environment 2003 Environmental Management and Sustainable Development for Better Future Growth. Penang, Malaysia: USM Publisher.Google Scholar
- Fauziah, S. H., & Agamuthu, P. (2012). Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Strategies in reducing the dependency on landfills. In International Seminar and Workshop on Landfill Operation and Management in Tropical Country, 27–28th August 2012, Bandar Acheh (pp. 13–19).Google Scholar
- How to Feed the World in 2050. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/wsfs/docs/expert_paper/How_to_Feed_the_World_in_2050.pdf. Accessed on August 25, 2018.
- Isa, H. (2012). Implementation of Basel Convention in Malaysia. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/293820586_Implementation_of_Basel_Convention_in_Malaysia/related. Accessed on August 20, 2018.
- Keddah Rubber City—Northern Corridor Economic Region. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://220.127.116.11/v3/?page_id=8851. Accessed on September 4, 2018.
- Mah, C. M., Fujiwara, T., & Ho, C. S. (2018). Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing toward eco-efficiency concrete waste management in Malaysia. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 3415–3427.Google Scholar
- Malaysians waste 15,000 tonnes of food waste daily—Nation. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2016/05/24/malaysians-waste-15000-tonnes-of-food-daily/. Accessed on August 25, 2018.
- MIDA—Malaysian Investment Development Authority—Tax Incentive for Green Industry. (2018). Retrieved from http://www.mida.gov.my/home/tax-incentives-for-green-industry/posts/. Accessed on August 7, 2018.
- Sadhukhana, J., Martinez-Hernandez, E., Murphya, R. J., Ngc, D. K. S., Hassimd, M. H., Nga, K.S., et al. (2018). Role of bioenergy, biorefinery and bioeconomy in sustainable development: Strategic pathways for Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81, 1966–1987.Google Scholar
- The Bigger battle against food wastage. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.theheatmalaysia.com/Main/The-bigger-battle-against-food-wastage. Accessed on August 25, 2018.
- Tex Cycle. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.texcycle.com.my/texcyclesdnbhd/index.html. Accessed on September 6, 2018.