Introduction to Circular Economy and Summary Analysis of Chapters

  • Sadhan Kumar GhoshEmail author


One-way model of production and consumption has been dominating over the past one and a half century in the globe. In the supply chain in this one-way model, the goods are manufactured from raw materials in production processes, sold, used, and subsequently at the end of its lifetime as the specific product is discarded as waste to landfill or incinerated. The raw materials are once extracted from the nature, usually discarded at the end of the use of a particular product.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and TechnologyJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia
  2. 2.International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water (ISWMAW)KolkataIndia

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