Strategies to Control Emissions from Off-Road Diesel Engines

  • M. V. Ganesh PrasadEmail author
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)


With advancement of societies, travel over short distances in traffic snarls or long distances at high power is becoming common. Also, diesel engine is the main workhorse of the fast industrialising globe, for building infrastructure, and improving comfort. The increase in engine population working in different duty cycles, has caused rise in emissions in spaces where large population is concentrated. As emission standards are progressively raised worldwide to combat this problem, advanced and complex diesel engines are designed to meet the specifications; hand in hand, testing diesel engines according to operating cycles defined as functions of the types of duties, has become more and more sophisticated. For on-road operations, the testing cycles of different nations are becoming harmonised to avoid multiplicity of certification tests or of engine calibrations. There are many harmful chemical compounds, mainly in gaseous form in the engine exhaust; those that are in minute traces and can be healed by the nature, are not regulated; on the other hand, nitric oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM) which are in large concentrations, are regulated tightly. Carbon dioxide as a significant contributor to global warming is regulated indirectly by placing a ceiling on the corporate average consumption of fossil fuels. Diesel is known for NOx formation in the high temperature zones of diesel spray, and for creation of PM in rich cold regions of the spray. In this chapter, the impact of various parameters of operation and design, is explained in the context of diesel engines, to enable devising control strategies such as turbocharging, intercooling, exhaust gas recirculation, and water injection, or aftertreatment systems like selective catalytic reduction, diesel oxidation catalyst, and diesel particulate filter are discussed in detail.


  1. Aoyagi Y, Kamimoto T, Matsui Y, Matsuoka S (1980) A gas sampling study on the formation processes of soot and NO in a diesel engine. SAE Paper No 800254Google Scholar
  2. AVL gas exchange and combustion analysis V4.1, product guideGoogle Scholar
  3. Arcoumannis C, Bicen AF, Whitelaw JH (1993) Squish and swirl–squish interaction in motored model engines. ASME J Fluid Mech 105:12Google Scholar
  4. Asad U, Kelly C, Wang M, Tjong J (2013) Effects of intake air humidity on the NOx emissions and performance of a light-duty diesel engine, pp 235–242.
  5. Benajes, JB, Reyes E, Lujan JM (1996) Intake valve pre-lift effect on the performance of a turbocharged diesel engine. SAE Paper No 960950Google Scholar
  6. Benajes J, Reyes E, Lujaa JM (1996) Modelling study of the scavenging process in a turbocharged diesel engine with modified valve operation. Proc Inst Mech Eng 210Google Scholar
  7. Cataluña R, da Silva R (2012) Effect of cetane number on specific fuel consumption and particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbon emissions from diesel engines. J Combust 2012(Article ID 738940):6.
  8. Chen R, Milovanovic N, Turner J, Blundell D (2003) The thermal effect of internal exhaust gas recirculation on controlled auto ignition. SAE Paper No 2003-01-0751Google Scholar
  9. Dennis A, Garner C, Taylor D (1999) The effect of EGR on diesel engine wear, SAE 1999-01-0839, in-cylinder diesel particulate and NOx control 1999Google Scholar
  10. Dent JC (1979) Turbulent air flow in the combustion bowl of a DI diesel engine and its effect on engine performance. SAE Paper 790040Google Scholar
  11. Edwards SP, Frankle GR, Wirbeleit F, Raab A (1998) The potential of a combined miller cycle and internal EGR engine for future heavy duty truck applications. SAE Paper No 980180Google Scholar
  12. G.S.R. (General Statutory Rules) 84 (E) dated 9th November, 2009, Emission limits for construction equipment vehicles (CEV)Google Scholar
  13. Heywood JB (2011) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. Tata McGraw-Hill, Edition 2011Google Scholar
  14. Horiuchi H, Ihara Y, Shimizu T, Niino S, Shoyama K (2004) The Hino E13C: a heavy-duty diesel engine developed for extremely low emissions and superior fuel economy. SAE Paper No 2004-01-1312Google Scholar
  15. Hountalas DT, Mavropoulos GC, Zannis TC, Mamalis SD (2006) Use of water emulsion and intake water injection as NOx reduction techniques for heavy duty diesel engines. SAE Paper No 2006-01-1414Google Scholar
  16. ISO 8178-4:1996. Reciprocating internal combustion engines—exhaust emission measurement—part 4: steady-state test cycles for different engine applicationsGoogle Scholar
  17. Johnson TV (2009) Diesel emission control in review. SAE Paper No 2009-01-0121Google Scholar
  18. Kapus PE, Denger D, Holland T (2002) Intelligent simplification—ways towards improved fuel economy. SAE Paper No 2002-01-0236Google Scholar
  19. Kondoh T, Fukumoto A, Ohsawa K, Ohkubo Y (1985) An assessment of a multidimensional numerical method to predict the flow in internal combustion engines. SAE Paper 850500Google Scholar
  20. Kumar P, Jaipuria A, Umashankar N, Lakshminarayanan PA (2009) NOx selective catalytic reduction (SCR)-emission technology for India. SAE Paper No. 2009-26-015Google Scholar
  21. Ladommatos N, Abdelhalim SM, Zhao H, Hu Z (1996a) The dilution, chemical, and thermal effects of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine emissions—part 1: effect of reducing inlet charge oxygen. SAE Paper No 961165Google Scholar
  22. Ladommatos N, Abdelhalim SM, Zhao H, Hu Z (1996b) The dilution, chemical, and thermal effects of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine emissions—part 2: effects of carbon dioxide. SAE Paper No 961167Google Scholar
  23. Ladommatos N, Abdelhalim SM, Zhao H, HuBrunel Z (1997) The dilution, chemical, and thermal effects of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine emissions—part 3: effects of water vapour. SAE Paper No 971659Google Scholar
  24. Ladommatos N, Abdelhalim S, Zhao H (2000) The effects of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel combustion and emissions. Int J Engine Res 1:107. Scholar
  25. Lakshminarayanan PA, Nagaraj Nayak S (2011) Critical component wear in heavy duty diesel engines. Wiley, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  26. Meistrick Z, Usko J, Shoyama K, Kijima K, Okazaki T, Maeda Y (2004) Integrated internal EGR and compression braking system for Hino’s E13C engine. SAE Paper No 2004-01-1313Google Scholar
  27. Millo F, Mallamo F, Arnone L, Bonanni M, Franceschini D (2007) Analysis of different internal EGR solutions for small diesel engines. SAE Paper No 2007- 01-0128Google Scholar
  28. Millo F, Bernardi MG, Delneri D (2011) Computational analysis of internal and external EGR strategies combined with miller cycle concept for a two stage turbocharged medium speed marine diesel engine. SAE Paper No 2011-01-1142Google Scholar
  29. Mitchell DL, Pinson JA, Litzinger TA (1993) The effects of simulated EGR via intake air dilution on combustion in an optically accessible DI diesel engine. SAE Paper No. 932798Google Scholar
  30. Ohigashi S, Kuroda H, Hayashi Y, Sugihara K (1971) Heat capacity changes predict nitrogen oxides reduction by exhaust gas recirculation. SAE Paper No. 710010Google Scholar
  31. Pourkhesalian AM, Shamekhi AH, Farhad Salimi KN (2010) NOx control using variable exhaust valve timing and duration. SAE Paper No 2010-01-1204Google Scholar
  32. Rizvi Syed A (1999) Comprehensive review of lubricant chemistry, technology, selection, and design, MNL59. ASTM International (2009)Google Scholar
  33. Ropke S, Schweimer GW, Strauss TS (1995) NOx formation in diesel engines for various fuels and intake gases. SAE Paper No. 950213Google Scholar
  34. Saito T, Daisho Y, Uchida N, Ikeya N (1986) Effects of combustion chamber geometry on diesel combustion. SAE Technical Paper 861186Google Scholar
  35. Schwoerer J, Dodi S, Fox M, Huang S, Yang Z (2004) Internal EGR systems for NOx emission reduction in heavy-duty diesel engines. SAE Paper No 2004-01-1315Google Scholar
  36. Simescu S, Ryan TW, Neely GD, Matheaus AC, Surampudi B (2002) Partial pre-mixed combustion with cooled and uncooled EGR in a heavy-duty diesel engine. SAE Paper No 2002-01-0963Google Scholar
  37. Tanabe K, Kohketsu S, Nakayama S (2005) Effect of fuel injection rate control on reduction of emissions and fuel consumption in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. SAE Paper No 2005-01-0907Google Scholar
  38. Thundil Karuppa Raj R, Manimaran R (2012) Effect of swirl in a constant speed DI diesel engine using computational fluid dynamics. CFD Lett 4(4)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ashok LeylandChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations