Mitigation of Soil Liquefaction Under Strip Footing by Densification: A Numerical Investigation

  • N. DineshEmail author
  • Subhadeep Banerjee
  • K. Rajagopal
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 56)


Simple procedures are available to capture the characteristic response of loose sand under cyclic loading in free field conditions. However, the applicability of these procedures to evaluate the performance of the geotechnical structures overlying the saturated granular soil remains as a concern since the responses exhibited by the soil are very complex in these cases. One such case involving the strip foundation on top of liquefiable sand is numerically studied. The constitutive behavior of the sand is modeled using PM4Sand. In addition to the basic case, soil densification which has been a traditional remediation measure against liquefaction of saturated loose sand deposits is considered to mitigate the deformations of the strip footing. The depth of densified column below the footing is varied in order to assess its influence on the performance of the footing during seismic shaking. The settlement and excess pore water pressure corresponding to the five different cases of numerical model including an untreated model and four other models with different vertical extent are presented and its implications on the response of the footing are discussed.


Liquefaction PM4Sand Densification Numerical model Strip footing 


  1. 1.
    Adalier K, Aydingun O (2003) Numerical analysis of seismically induced liquefaction in earth embankment foundations. Part II Application of remedial measures. Can Geotech J 40:766–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adalier K, Elgamal AW, Martin GR (1998) Foundation liquefaction countermeasures for earth embankments. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 124(6):500–517 (ASCE)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adalier K, Sharp MK (2004) Embankment dam on liquefiable foundation-dynamic behaviour and densification remediation. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 130(11):1214–1224 (ASCE)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arulmoli K, Muraleetharan KK, Hossain MM, Fruth LS (1992) Verification of liquefaction analysis by centrifuge studies laboratory testing program soil data, Irvine, CA, Earth Technology CorporationGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boulanger RW, Ziotopoulou K (2015) PM4Sand model version 3 a sand plasticity model for earthquake engineering applications, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UC Davis, Centre for Geotechnical Modeling, Report No. UCD/CGM-15-01Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boulanger RW, Khosravi M, Khosravi A, Wilson DW (2018) Remediation of liquefaction effects for an embankment using soil-cement walls: centrifuge and numerical modeling. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 114:38–50 (Elsevier Ltd)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dimitriadi VE, Bouckovalas GD, Chaloulos YK, Aggelis AS (2018) Seismic liquefaction performance of strip foundations: effect of ground improvement dimensions. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 106:298–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Elgamal A, Parra E, Yang Z, Adalier K (2002) Numerical analysis of embankment foundation liquefaction countermeasures. J Earthq Eng 6(4):447–471Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li P, Dashti S, Badanagki M, Kirkwood P (2018) Evaluating 2D numerical simulations of granular columns in level and gently sloping liquefiable sites using centrifuge experiments. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 110:232–243 (Elsevier Ltd)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu L, Dobry R (1997) Seismic response of shallow foundation on liquefiable sand. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 123(6):557–567 (ASCE)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rollins KM, Seed HB (1990) Influence of buildings on potential liquefaction damage. J Geotech Eng 116(2):165–185 (ASCE)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang Z, Elgamal A, Adalier K, Sharp MK (2004) Earth dam on liquefiable foundation and remediation: numerical simulation of centrifuge experiments. J Eng Mech 130(11):1168–1176 (ASCE)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations