The Effect of Saline Fluid on Hydraulic Properties of Clays

  • Koteswaraarao JaddaEmail author
  • Ramakrishna Bag
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 56)


The effect of pore fluid concentration on the hydraulic conductivity of barrier material is one of the key factors which are considered in the long-term performance of a geological repository. The current study presents the effect of various NaCl concentrations on Atterberg limits and hydraulic properties of two bentonites and one kaolin clay. The results indicated that the liquid limit, shrinkage limit, and consolidation characteristics of bentonites such as compression index (CC) and the time required for 90% of consolidation (t90) were decreased significantly with an increase in salt concentrations. Similarly, the hydraulic conductivity and coefficient of consolidation (Cv) increased drastically with increase in salt concentrations; however, the significant impact was found for the high smectite bentonite. The experimental results showed that the hydraulic conductivity of the clays mainly depends on the particle arrangement rather than percentage of clay fraction and consolidation stress. For kaolin soil, both the liquid limit and shrinkage limit were found to be slightly increased up to 0.5 M NaCl, however, the effect was found to be decreased at further increase in concentrations, whereas hydraulic conductivity was found to be increased with increase in NaCl concentration. Further, the effect of molding water content on the consolidation characteristics of the clays was also investigated. The parameter compression ratio was used to evaluate the impact of initial moisture content on the compression index of the soil specimens. The hydraulic conductivity of the clays was noted to be increased at higher pore fluid concentration, due to the diminishing of the diffused double-layer thickness of clay minerals.


Bentonite Kaolin Compression index Hydraulic conductivity Saline fluid 


  1. 1.
    Bag R, Rabbani A (2017) Effect of temperature on swelling pressure and compressibility characteristics of soil. Appl Clay Sci 136:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cerato AB, Lutenegger AJ (2002) Determination of surface area of fine-grained soils by the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) method. Geotech Test J 25(3):315–321  Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen YG, Zhu CM, Ye WM, Cui YJ, Wang Q (2015) Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity of compacted GMZ01 bentonite under salinization-desalinization cycle conditions. Appl Clay Sci 114:454–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dutta J, Mishra AK (2017) Consolidation behavior of compacted bentonites in the presence of heavy metals. J Hazard Toxic Radioact Waste 21(04017003):1–8Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fan RD, Du YJ, Liu SY, Chen ZB (2014) Compressibility and hydraulic conductivity of sand/clay–bentonite backfills. In: Reddy KR, Shen SJ (eds) Geo-ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ismeik M, Ashteyat AM, Ramadan KZ (2013) Stabilisation of fine-grained soils with saline water. Eur J Environ Civ Eng 17:32–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kenney TC, Van Veen WA, Swallow MA, Sungaila MA (1992) Hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite–sand mixtures. Can Geotech J 29(3):364–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Komine H (2008) Theoretical equations on hydraulic conductivities of bentonite-based buffer and backfill for underground disposal of radioactive wastes. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 134:497–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mishra AK, Ohtsubo M, Li LY, Higashi T, Park J (2009) Effect of salt of various concentrations on liquid limit, and hydraulic conductivity of different soil-bentonite mixtures. Environ Geol 57:1145–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nagaraj TS, Joshi RC, Srinivasa Murthy BR (1988) Generalized equation for compression Ratio. J Test Eval 16(1):86–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ören AH, Akar RÇ (2017) Swelling and hydraulic conductivity of bentonites permeated with landfill leachates. Appl Clay Sci 142:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rao SM, Ravi K (2013) Hydro-mechanical characterization of Barmer 1 bentonite from Rajasthan, India. Nucl Eng Des 265:330–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Siddiqua S, Blatz J, Siemens G (2011) Evaluation of the impact of pore fluid chemistry on the hydromechanical behaviour of clay-based sealing materials. Can Geotechn 48:199–213 (NRC Research Press)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singh S, Prasad A (2017) Influence of ferric chloride and humic acid on bentonite as clay liner. Int J Geotech Eng 4(1):45–53MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    SKB (2004) Interim main report of the safety assessment SR-Can. SKB technical report TR-04-11, Swedish nuclear fuel Management Company limited, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Souli H, Fleureau JM, Trabelsi Ayadi M, Besnard M (2008) Physicochemical analysis of permeability changes in the presence of zinc. Geoderma 145:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sridaran A, Prakash K (2000) Shrinkage limit of soil mixtures. Geotechn Test J 23(1):3–8 (ASTM)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sridharan A, Jayadeva MS (1982) Double layer theory and compressibility of clays. Géotechnique 32(2):133–144  CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sridharan A, Rao SM, Joshi S (1990) Classification of expansive soils by sediment volume method. Geotech Test J 13:375–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thyagaraj T, Rao SM (2013) Osmotic Swelling and osmotic consolidation behaviour of compacted expansive clay. Geotech Geol Eng 31:435–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tiwari B, Ajmera B (2014) Effects of saline fluid on compressibility of clay minerals. Environ Geotechn 1:108–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tripathy S, Bag R, Thomas HR (2014) Effects of post-compaction residual lateral stress and electrolyte concentration on swelling pressures of a compacted bentonite. Geotech Geol Eng 32:749–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhu CM, Ye WM, Chen YG, Chen B, Cui YJ (2013) Influence of salt solutions on the swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity of compacted GMZ01 bentonite. Eng Geol 166:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology PatnaPatnaIndia

Personalised recommendations