Advertisement

Effect of Stabilization on Characteristics of Subgrade Soil: A Review

  • Pritam Sinha
  • Kannan K. R. IyerEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 55)

Abstract

Scarcity of suitable subgrade soil for developing infrastructure facilities has led to need for improving the properties of available soil. The soil can be improved by stabilization with pozzolonic materials (viz., cement, lime, fly ash, etc.) or by reinforcing the soil with inclusions such as geosynthetics material. The present work reviews the effect of soil stabilization (viz., influence of stabilizer content, curing period, thickness of stabilization) on soil subgrade characteristics like compressive strength, modulus of subgrade reaction, California bearing ratio, elastic modulus, settlement, swelling and shrinkage, optimum moisture content, maximum dry density and consistency limits. The review of earlier studies reveals that lime is more popular for cohesive soil stabilization with optimum lime content reported as 4–5%. Other additives such as cement, fly ash and chemical stabilizers have also been used in addition to lime for soil stabilization. The unconfined compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of soil is significantly improved due to addition of stabilizer and proper curing time. The improvement in compressive strength is higher for soft soil as compared to stiff soil. The modulus of subgrade reaction increases with increase in thickness of stabilized soil. Further, significant increase in California bearing ratio is observed for stabilized soils as compared to unstabilized soils. Soil stabilization reduces plasticity index and maximum dry density of soil, while optimum moisture content increases. This paper present the synthesis of effect of stabilization on different soil characteristics and highlights the recent developments in utilization of industrial residue and sustainable materials for soil stabilization.

Keywords

Stabilization Subgrade soil Soil characteristics Sustainable materials 

References

  1. 1.
    Alrubaye AJ, Hasan M, Fattah MY (2017) Stabilization of soft kaolin clay with silica fume and lime. Int J Geotech Eng 11(1):90–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bagherpour I, Choobbasti AJ (2003) Stabilization of fine-grained soils by adding microsilica and lime or microsilica and cement. Electron J Geotech Eng 8:1–10Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beeghly JH (2003) Recent experiences with lime—fly ash stabilization of pavement subgrade soils, base and recycled asphalt. In: International Ash Utilization Symposium, Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Paper#46Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Behak L (2017) Soil stabilization with rice husk ash, Chapter 3. Rice-Technology and Production. Intech Publishers. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/66311Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    DPSMS Report, Design Procedures for Soil Modification or Stabilization (2008) Report of Office of Geotechnical Engineering. Indianapolis, Indiana, USAGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fell R, Wan CF, Cyganiewicz J, Foster M (2003) Time for development of internal erosion and piping in embankment dams. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 129(4):307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    George KP (2001) Soil stabilization field trial. Report for US Department of Transporation, Federal Highway Administration and The Portland Cement Association, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Holt C (2010) Chemical stabilization of inherently weak subgrade soils for road construction—applicability in Canada. In: Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada Halifax, Nova ScotiaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Indraratna B, Nguyen V, Rujikiatkamjorn C (2011) Assessing the potential of internal erosion and suffusion of granular soil. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 137(5):550–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ismaiel HAH (2006) Treatment and improvement of the geotechnical properties of different soft fine-grained soils using chemical stabilization. Institute of Geology, Martin Luther Halle-Wittenberg University, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jafer HM, Atherton W, Ruddock FM (2015) Soft soil stabilization using high calcium waste material fly ash. In: 12th International Post-Graduate Research Conference, Manchester-Salford, UKGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jayanthi PNV, Singh DN (2016) Utilization of sustainable materials for soil stabilization: state-of-the-art. Adv Civil Eng Mater 5(1):46–79Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jha AK, Sivapullaiah PV (2015) Mechanism of improvement in the strength and volume change behaviour. Eng Geol 198(2015):53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jones D, Rahim A, Saadeh S, Harvey JT (2011) Guidelines for the stabilization of subgrade soils in California. Report submitted to California Department of Transportation, USAGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kate JM(2005) Strength and volume change behavior of expansive soils treated with fly ash. Innovations in Grouting and Soil Improvement Innovations in Grouting and Soil Improvement, ASCEGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kavek A, Bilgen G (2016) Reuse of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) in lime stabilized embankment materials. IACSIT Int J Eng Technol 8(1):11–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim S, Gopalakrishnan K, Ceylan H (2012) Moisture susceptibility of subgrade soils stabilized by lignin-based renewable energy coproduct. J Transp Eng ASCE 138(11):1283–1290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Larkela A, Mengelt M, Stapelfeldt T (2013) Determination of distribution of modulus of subgrade reaction. In: 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lin DF, Lin KL, Luo HL (2007) A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil. Air Waste Manage Assoc 57:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Little DN, Scullion T, Kota PBVS, Bhuiyan J (1995) Identification of the structural benefits of base and subgrade stabilization. Texas Department of Transportation, FHWA/TX-94/1287-2Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Little DN, Males EH, Prusinski JR, Stewart B (2000) Cementitious stabilization, A2J01: Committee on Cementitious StabilizationGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Makusa GP (2004) A review of geotechnical behavior of stabilized soils. Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Division of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mitchell JK, Soga K (1993) Fundamental of soil behavior, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pancar EB, Akpinar MV (2016) Comparison of effects of using geosynthetics and lime stabilization to increase bearing capacity of unpaved road subgrade. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Advances in Materials Science and EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pillappa GS (2005) Field and experimental studies to assess the performance of stabilized expansive clay. The University of Texas at ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pourakbar S, Asadi A, Haut BBK, Hamed M (2015) Stabilization of clayey soil using ultrafine palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and cement. Transp Geotech 3:24–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Puppala A, Griffin JA, Hoyos LR, Chomtid S (2004) Studies on sulfate-resistant cement stabilization methods to address sulfate-induced soil heave. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 130(4). doi: https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1090-0241(2004)130:4(391)
  28. 28.
    Quigley P (2006) Modification/stabilization of low strength cohesive soils under foundations and floor slabs. Geotechnical Society of IrelandGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reinhold F (1955) Elastic behavior of soil-cement mixtures. Bulletin, Issue No. 108, Highway Research Board, Washington D.C., pp 128–137Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Saied A, Amin C, Hamid N (2012) A review on the lime and fly ash application in soil stabilization. Int J Biol Ecol Environ Sci (IJBEES) 3:2277–4394Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Saing Z and Djainal H (2018) Effect of lime stabilization on vertical deformation of Laterite Halmahera soil. In: IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental ScienceCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Suddath LP (1975) Load-deflection behavior of lime stabilized layers. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, IllinoisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Terzaghi K (1955) Evaluation of coefficient of subgrade reaction. Geotechnique 5(4):297–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wild S, Kunuthia JM, Robinson RB, Humphreys I (1995) Effects of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) on the strength and swelling properties of lime-stabilized kaolinite in the presence of sulphates. Clay Minerals 31:423–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yadu L, Tripathi RK (2013) Effects of granulated blast furnace slag in the engineering behaviour of stabilized soft soil. Procedia Eng 51:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringInstitute of Infrastructure Technology Research and ManagementAhmedabadIndia

Personalised recommendations