Insecticide Toxicity and Pesticide Residues in Horticultural Crops

  • G. K. Mahapatro
  • S. Rajna


Pesticide-risk-analysis (PRA) is a key area in toxicology with wider relevance to horticultural crops. Though the pesticide consumption is comparatively low in developing countries like India, than developed nations, the unscrupulous and unscientific usage is the culprit. This makes commodities laden with pesticides exceeding the permissible limits, posing potential problem to human health and the non-targets. Reduced-risk pesticides with PHI, biosafety aspects to pollinators, safe waiting periods must be given due importance, and control interventions must be initiated based on Economic Threshold Level (ETL). Role of GAP in PRA is deliberated, with relevant information and examples. Robust crop management practices and good agricultural practices, vigilant monitoring system is necessary. Rapid in situ techniques must be developed to residues and contaminants in the concerned commodities. It is assumed that a strong extension system supported by ICT sector is necessary to accomplish the task.


Economic Threshold Level (ETL) Good agricultural practice (GAP) Pesticide-risk-analysis (PRA) Sustainable agriculture 



The authors are grateful to the authorities of ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, for their support and encouragement.


  1. AINP on Pesticide Residues (2013) Monitoring of pesticide residues at National level. Annual Report (2011-2012). ICAR-IARI, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  2. AINP on Pesticide Residues (2015) Monitoring of pesticide residues at National level. Annual Report (2013-2014). ICAR-IARI, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  3. Akter M, Fan L, Rahman MM, Geissen V, Ritsema CJ (2018) Vegetable farmers’ behaviour and knowledge related to pesticide use and related health problems: a case study from Bangladesh. J Clean Prod 200:122–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Awasthi MD (1986) Chemical treatments for the decontamination of brinjal fruit from residues of synthetic pyrethroids. Pestic Sci 17(2):89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhushan C, Bhardwaj A, Misra SS (2013) State of pesticide regulations in India. Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, pp 1–72Google Scholar
  6. Brittain CA, Vighi M, Bommarco R, Settele J, Potts SG (2010) Impacts of a pesticide on pollinator species richness at different spatial scales. Basic Appl Ecol 11(2):106–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cai DW (2008) Understand the role of chemical pesticides and prevent misuses of pesticides. Bull Agric Sci Technol 1(6):36–38Google Scholar
  8. Coslor CC, Vandervoort C, Wise JC (2019) Insecticide dose and seasonal timing of trunk injection in apples influence efficacy and residues in nectar and plant parts. Pest Manag Sci 75(5):1453–1463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. DARE (2015) DARE/ICAR annual report, 2014-15. pp 1–103Google Scholar
  10. Devos Y, Romeis J, Luttik R, Maggiore A, Perry JN, Schoonjans R, Brock TC (2015) Optimising environmental risk assessments. EMBO Rep 16(9):1060–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Doris MS, Ramesha N, Karanth NGK (1990) Insecticide contamination in groundnuts and biological methods for cleaning. In: Shetty HS, Prakash HS (eds) Proc. Adv. Seed Sci. Technol. (UGC-DRS), Mysore, pp 368–371Google Scholar
  12. FICCI (2013) Indian Agrochemical Industry: imperative of growth. 3rd National Agrochemical conclaveGoogle Scholar
  13. IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) (2007) IRAC mode of action classification revised and re-issued, July 2007.
  14. Jankowska M, Łozowicka B, Kaczyński P (2019) Comprehensive toxicological study over 160 processing factors of pesticides in selected fruit and vegetables after water, mechanical and thermal processing treatments and their application to human health risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 652:1156–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Karanth NGK (1992) Abatement of pesticide residues through biodegradation. In: Agrawal VP, Rana SVS (eds) Environment and biodegradation. Society of Biosciences, Muzaffarnagar, pp 243–252Google Scholar
  16. Karanth NGK, Jayaram M, Majumder SK (1982a) Insecticidal residue in vegetables obtained from soil treated with hexachlorocyclohexane. J Food Sci Technol 19(1):14–19Google Scholar
  17. Karanth NGK, Srimathi MS, Majumder SK (1982b) A chromogenic paper for ultrarapid detection of organochlorine insecticide residues in vegetables. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 28(2):221–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Karanth NGK, Jayaram M, Majumder SK (1983a) Observations on the growth and residue levels of insecticide in vegetable plants raised on hexachlorocyclohexane treated soil. Comp Physiol Ecol 8(4):357–361Google Scholar
  19. Karanth NGK, Srimathi MS, Majumder SK (1983b) Insecticide fingerprinting technique for detection and location of organochlorine insecticide residues in foods. J Environ Sci Health B 18(6):745–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mahapatro GK, Behera TK (2009) Integrated pest management in vegetable crops. In: Kalia P, Subodh J, Behera TK, Sushil P (eds) Vegetable variety development and evaluation. IARI, New Delhi, pp 163–169, 256 p, Training sponsored by FAO, 15 Sept 2009 to 14 Oct 2009Google Scholar
  21. Mahapatro GK, Birah A, Gupta GP (2008) Pesticides in India: the tangible trends. Indian J Entomol 70(1):1–11Google Scholar
  22. Mandal K, Singh B (2010) Magnitude and frequency of pesticide residues in farmgate samples of cauliflower in Punjab, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85(4):423–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pimentel D (2009) Pesticides and pest control. In: Rajinder P, Dhawan A (eds) Integrated pest management: innovation-development process, vol 1. Springer, pp 83–87Google Scholar
  24. Rai AB (2014) Integrated pest management for vegetable crops. Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, VaranasiGoogle Scholar
  25. Sanchez-Bayo F, Goka K (2014) Pesticide residues and bees—a risk assessment. PLoS One 9(4):e94482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sitaramaraju S, Prasad NVVSD, Reddy VC, Narayana E (2014) Impact of pesticides used for crop production on the environment. J Chem Pharm Sci 3:75–79Google Scholar
  27. Skerritt JH (1998) Appropriate analytical technologies for monitoring agrochemical residues. In: Kennedy IR, Skerritt JH, Johnson GI, Highley E (eds) Proceedings of ACIAR, No. 85. Seeking agricultural produce free of pesticide residues, pp 37–45Google Scholar
  28. The Indian Express, 5 Jan 2015Google Scholar
  29. Vaughan M, Ferruzzi G, Bagdon J, Hesketh E, Biddinger D (2014) Preventing or mitigating potential negative impacts of pesticides on pollinators using integrated pest management and other conservation practices. Agronomy Technical Note No. 9, Feb 2014, pp 1–24Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. K. Mahapatro
    • 1
  • S. Rajna
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of EntomologyICAR—Indian Agriculture Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations