Large-Scale Production of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Its Biopesticide: Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (HaNPV)

  • S. S. Gayathri Devi
  • S. Rajashekara
  • M. G. Venkatesha
  • B. N. Gangadhar
  • B. Doddabasappa


A pilot-scale production system of NPV requires a continuous supply of large number of host insects that are disease-free, uniform in size, physiologically fit, and genetically efficient. Hence, the selection of healthy colony from the filed population is a critical process. Among the different populations collected from the fields, the population from Belgaum showed lesser level of microbial contaminations. Microscopic observations also revealed that the highest larval and pupal mortality was resulted due to protozoan pathogen, Vairimorpha sp. compared to other pathogens regardless of the populations collected from different geographical areas. The maximum fecundity and egg hatching and the time taken to stabilize the colony under laboratory conditions are considered as basic parameters to screen the most suitable breeding colony among the different populations for large-scale viral production. Although all the population collected from different geographical areas stabilized in the laboratory from fifth generation and onwards, Helicoverpa armigera population collected from Belgaum was found superior in terms of fecundity and egg hatching compared to other populations throughout the study period up to 25 generations. Helicoverpa armigera female moths emerged 1 day earlier than the male moths. The peak emergence period of female moths and male moths varied. More or less similar kind of peak emergence pattern was noticed irrespective of pupal age. After standardization of various components such as healthy population of H. armigera (Belgaum), adult nutrition (10% honey), sex ratio (1:2), and pigeon pea-based diet for mass production of H. armigera and its NPV, it was found that improved method increased the fecundity of H. armigera, and its HaNPV yield is significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of standard rearing method. The difference of 368 extra number of HaNPV bottles (1 × 1011 POBs/100 mL bottle) was produced from modified diet.


Helicoverpa armigera Semi-synthetic diets HaNPV POB yield 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. Gayathri Devi
    • 1
  • S. Rajashekara
    • 2
  • M. G. Venkatesha
    • 2
  • B. N. Gangadhar
    • 3
  • B. Doddabasappa
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Scientific Research and Advanced Learning Mount Carmel CollegeBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyBangalore UniversityBengaluruIndia
  3. 3.Department of HorticultureHorticultural UniversityBagalkotIndia
  4. 4.College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, BagalkotKolarIndia

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