Insect Vectors of Phytoplasma Diseases in the Tropics: Molecular Biology and Sustainable Management

  • N. Nagaraju
  • V. V. Kavyashri
  • Akshay Kumar Chakravarthy
  • S. Onkara Naik
  • Thimmanna


Phytoplasmas are pleomorphic, non-culturable, wall-less prokaryotes that colonize phloem tissues of several plant species inflicting yellows-type diseases. They are transmitted between plants by vegetative propagation, and insect vectors are the chief means of dissemination of phytoplasmas. This chapter summarizes recent progress in phytoplasma research, focusing on molecular division, phytoplasma–insect vector interactions, molecular mechanisms of insect transmissibility, vector dispersal, serological and molecular diagnostic tools for detection and characterization of phytoplasma, practices for sustainable disease management, and important phytoplasma diseases in India.


Phytoplasma Vectors Molecular biology Sustainability 



The authors are grateful to the authorities of University of Agricultural Sciences and Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, for encouragement and facilities. Select figures in this chapter have been taken from published sources, and the authors and the editor are thankful to the publishers, editors, and contributors of the publications.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Nagaraju
    • 1
  • V. V. Kavyashri
    • 1
  • Akshay Kumar Chakravarthy
    • 2
  • S. Onkara Naik
    • 3
  • Thimmanna
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of Agricultural Sciences-GKVKBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Society for Science and Technology Applications (SSTA)BangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Division of Entomology and NematologyICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia
  4. 4.Division of Plant Pathology and NematologyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

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