Advertisement

International Cooperation as an Arctic Solution?

  • Andreas ØsthagenEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Cooperation across maritime boundaries have increasingly come into focus as Arctic states attempt to tackle a growing gap between aspirations and capabilities in their respective northern waters. Multilateral cooperation has been touted as a tool to manage an increasingly challenging situation in northern waters. As the most blatant example of this, an Arctic Coast Guard Forum was officially established in 2015 after years of deliberation on its potential role. This chapter explicitly examines the notion of pan-Arctic cooperation on coast guard issues, discussing its potential and limitations. Finally, it relates these trends to general literature on international cooperation and its relevance for understanding contemporary cooperation at sea between states.

Keywords

Arctic Coast Guard Forum Arctic Council Russia Multilateral cooperation Defence cooperation 

References

  1. Arctic Council. 2011. ‘Agreement on Cooperation on Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue in the Arctic.’ Nuuk: Arctic Council.Google Scholar
  2. ———. 2013. ‘Agreement on Cooperation on Marine Oil Pollution, Preparedness and Response in the Arctic.’ Kiruna: Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response Working Group.Google Scholar
  3. Bekkevold, Jo Inge, and Kristine Offerdal. 2014. ‘Norway’s High North Policy and New Asian Stakeholders.’ Strategic Analysis 38 (6): 825–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biscop, Sven, and Jo Coelmont. 2012. ‘Military Capabilities: From Pooling & Sharing to a Permanent and Structured Approach.’ Egmont, Royal Institute for International Relations—Security Policy Brief, No. 37 (September): 1–4.Google Scholar
  5. Byers, Michael. 2013. International Law and the Arctic. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ———. 2016. ‘Arctic Cruises: Fun for Tourists, Bad for the Environment.’ The Globe and Mail, April 18. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/arctic-cruises-great-for-tourists-bad-for-the-environment/article29648307/.
  7. Canadian Coast Guard. 2013. ‘CCG Fleet: Reports.’ Ottawa: Government of Canada. http://www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca/Fleet/Search.
  8. Coast Guard Alaska. 2014. ‘International Search in the Bering.’ Edited by Coast Guard Alaska. Official Blog of the 17th Coast Guard District: USCG. http://alaska.coastguard.dodlive.mil/2014/12/international-search-in-the-bering/.
  9. Conley, Heather A., Terry Toland, Jamie Kraut, and Andreas Østhagen. 2012. ‘A New Security Architecture for the Arctic: An American Perspective.’ CSIS Report. January 20. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS).Google Scholar
  10. Conley, Heather A., and Caroline Rohloff. 2015. The New Ice Curtain. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS).Google Scholar
  11. Contenta, Sandro. 2010. ‘Canadians Have Their Own Oil Worries.’ Global Post: Canada. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/global-green/100602/canadians-worry-about-oil-spilling-beaufort-sea?page=0,1.
  12. Diesen, Sverre. 2013. ‘Towards an Affordable European Defence and Security Policy? The Case for Extensive European Force Integration.’ In NATO’s European Allies: Military Capability and Political Will, edited by Magnus Petersson and Janne Haaland Matlary, 57–70. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. ‘European Parliament Resolution of 9 October 2008 on Arctic Governance.’ 2008. European Parliament: Texts Adopted. Brussels: European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&language=EN&reference=P6-TA-2008-0474.
  14. Exner-Pirot, Heather. 2013. ‘What Is the Arctic a Case Of? The Arctic as a Regional Environmental Security Complex and the Implications for Policy.’ The Polar Journal 3 (1): 120–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Funston, Bernard. 2014. ‘Emergency Preparedness in Canada’s North: An Examination of Community Capacity.’ Toronto, ON.Google Scholar
  16. Grindheim, Astrid. 2009. ‘The Scramble for the Arctic? A Discourse Analysis of Norway and the EU’s Strategies Towards the European Arctic.’ Thesis. Oslo: Fridtjof Nansen Institute.Google Scholar
  17. Grønning, Ragnhild. 2016. ‘Why Military Security Should Be Kept Out of the Arctic Council.’ High North News, June 7. http://www.highnorthnews.com/op-ed-why-military-security-should-be-kept-out-of-the-arctic-council/.
  18. Ivanova, Maria. 2011. ‘Oil Spill Emergency Preparedness in the Russian Arctic: A Study of the Murmansk Region.’ Polar Research 30 (7285). http://www.polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/7285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jockel, Joseph T., and Joel J. Sokolsky. 2012. ‘Continental Defence: “Like Farmers Whose Lands Have a Common Concession Line”.’ In Canada’s National Security in the Post-9/11 World, edited by David McDonough, 114–36. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  20. Joint Arctic Command. 2013. ‘SAREX Greenland Sea 2013 Final Exercise Report (FER).’ Vol. 2.0. Nuuk, Greenland: Joint Arctic Command.Google Scholar
  21. Jones, Bruce. 2019. ‘Russian FSB Border Guard and USCG Start Joint Patrols in Bering Sea.’ Jane’s 360, June 13. https://www.janes.com/article/89226/russian-fsb-border-guard-and-uscg-start-joint-patrols-in-bering-sea.
  22. Keil, Kathrin. 2014. ‘The Arctic: A New Region of Conflict? The Case of Oil and Gas.’ Cooperation and Conflict 49 (2): 162–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keil, Kathrin, and Andreas Raspotnik. 2014. ‘The European Union’s Gateways to the Arctic.’ European Foreign Affairs Review 19 (1): 101–20.Google Scholar
  24. Klint, Chris. 2014. ‘U.S. Coast Guard Joins Search for 54 Fishermen After Bering Sea Sinking.’ KTUU-TV. http://www.ktuu.com/news/news/coast-guard-monitors-bering-sea-sinking-of-60person-fishing-vessel/30000826.
  25. Melia, Michael. 2015. ‘Arctic Coast Guards Pledge Co-operation at U.S. Meeting.’ CBC News: North, October 30. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/arctic-coast-guards-pledge-co-operation-at-u-s-meeting-1.3296921.
  26. Mock, William B. T. 1992. ‘Game Theory, Signalling and International Legal Relations.’ George Washington Journal of International Law & Economics 26: 33–60.Google Scholar
  27. Neffenger, Peter V. 2014. ‘Testimony of Vice Admiral Peter V. Neffenger Vice Commandant on Implementing U.S. Policy in the Arctic.’ House Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Subcommittee. U.S. Department of Homeland Security.Google Scholar
  28. Offerdal, Kristine. 2010. ‘Arctic Energy in EU Policy: Arbitrary Interest in the Norwegian High North.’ Arctic 63 (1): 30–42.Google Scholar
  29. Østhagen, Andreas. 2015. ‘Coastguards in Peril: A Study of Arctic Defence Collaboration.’ Defence Studies 15 (2): 143–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. ———. 2016. ‘High North, Low Politics Maritime Cooperation with Russia in the Arctic.’ Arctic Review on Law and Politics 7 (1): 83–100.Google Scholar
  31. Østhagen, Andreas, and Vanessa Gestaldo. 2015. ‘Coast Guard Co-operation in a Changing Arctic.’ Toronto: Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program. http://gordonfoundation.ca/publication/749.
  32. Raspotnik, Andreas, and Andreas Østhagen. 2014. ‘From Seal Ban to Svalbard—The European Parliament Engages in Arctic Matters.’ The Arctic Institute. March.Google Scholar
  33. Rottem, Svein Vigeland. 2014. ‘The Arctic Council and the Search and Rescue Agreement: The Case of Norway.’ Polar Record 50 (3): 284–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rottem, Svein Vigeland. 2017. ‘The Arctic Council: Challenges and Recommendations.’ In Arctic Governance: Law and Politics, Volume 1, edited by Svein Vigeland Rottem and Ida Folkestad Soltvedt, 231–51. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  35. Saxi, Håkon Lunde. 2011. ‘Nordic Defence Cooperation after the Cold War.’ Oslo Files. March. Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies.Google Scholar
  36. Sevunts, Levon. 2016. ‘Arctic Nations Deepen Coast Guard Cooperation’. Eye on the Arctic, June 10.Google Scholar
  37. Snidal, Duncan. 1985. ‘The Game Theory of International Politics.’ World Politics 38 (1): 25–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stokke, Olav Schram. 2006. ‘Examing the Consequences of Arctic Institutions.’ In International Cooperation and Arctic Governance: Regime Effectiveness and Northern Region Building, edited by Olav Schram Stokke and Geir Hønneland, 13–26. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. ———. 2014a. ‘Asian States and Arctic Governance.’ Strategic Analysis 38 (6): 770–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. ———. 2014b. ‘International Environmental Governance and Arctic Security.’ In Geopolitics and Security in the Arctic, edited by Rolf Tamnes and Kristine Offerdal, 121–46. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Stoltenberg, Thorvald. 2009. ‘Nordic Cooperation in Foreign and Security Policy.’ Proposals Presented to the Extraordinary Meeting of Nordic Foreign Ministers, Oslo.Google Scholar
  42. Till, Geoffrey. 2004. Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century. London: Frank Cass.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Valasek, Tomas. 2011. ‘The Case for a New Approach to About the CER Surviving Austerity the Case for a New.’ Centre for European Reform, April.Google Scholar
  44. von Voss, Alicia, Claudia Major, and Christian Mölling. 2013. ‘The State of Defence Cooperation in Europe.’ Working Paper, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Berlin. December.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fridtjof Nansen InstituteLysakerNorway

Personalised recommendations