The ‘Truth’ About Pakistan: Knowledge Production and Circulation in Area Studies
This chapter begins by exploring the development of the Area Studies enterprise beginning in the Cold War. The chapter argues that during the Cold War, Pakistan caught the attention of western policy-makers for primarily security reasons and continues to do so, for this reason most of the scholarship on Pakistan is largely focused on Pakistan’s security and Pakistan’s relationship with ‘international’ security. The chapter further explores Area Studies centers for their potential in producing knowledge on Pakistan. The data on Area Studies centers unveils two distinct patterns. First, it has unveiled the endemic lack of interest on the part of western knowledge producers in knowing Pakistan and the other states that make up the South Asian region. Secondly, while true to their proposed research ambit, South Asian area study centers across the West have intellectually explored India across the depths and breadths of various disciplines, so that the study of India has become a truly multidisciplinary enterprise, in the case of Pakistan, most of the research, however marginal, remains centered on matters of its security and international affairs. Finally the chapter analyzes the contributions on Pakistan in Area Studies journals to observe how Pakistan’s representational identity is discursively constructed.
- Appadurai, Arjun. “Grassroots Globalization and the Research Imagination.” Public Culture 12, no. 1 (2000): 1–19.Google Scholar
- Arturo Escobar. “Anthropology and the Development Encounter: The Making and Marketing of Development Anthropology.” American Ethnologist 18, no. 4 (1991): 658–82.Google Scholar
- ———. “Beyond the Third World: Imperial Globality, Global Coloniality and Anti-Globalisation Social Movements.” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 1 (2004): 207–30.Google Scholar
- Bates, Robert H. “Letter from the President: Area Studies and the Discipline.” Newsletter of the APSA Organised Section in Comparative Politics 7, no. 1 (1996): 1–16.Google Scholar
- ———. “Area Studies and the Discipline: A Useful Controversy?” PS: Political Science and Politics 30, no. 2 (1997): 166–69.Google Scholar
- Charsley, Katharine. Transnational Pakistani Connections Marrying ‘Back Home.’ 1st ed. London and New York: Routledge, 2017.Google Scholar
- Dirks, Nicholas B. “South Asian Studies: Futures Past.” In The Politics of Knowledge: Area Studies and the Disciplines, edited by David L. Szanton, 341–85. University of California Press, 2003.Google Scholar
- Dreyfuss, Robert. Devil’s Game: How the United States Helped Unleash Fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books, 2005.Google Scholar
- Escobar, Arturo. “Imagining a Post-development Era? Critical Thought, Development and Social Movements.” Social Text, no. 31/32 (1992): 20–56. https://doi.org/10.2307/466217.
- ———. “Power and Visibility: Development and the Invention and Management of the Third World.” Cultural Anthropology. Wiley American Anthropological Association, n.d. https://doi.org/10.2307/656487.
- Fair, C. Christine. “Militant Recruitment in Pakistan: A New Look at the Militancy-Madrasah Connection.” Asia Policy 4, no. 1 (2007): 107–34.Google Scholar
- ———. “The Militant Challenge in Pakistan.” Asia Policy 11 (2011): 105–38.Google Scholar
- Hanson, Stephen E. “The Contribution of Area Studies.” In The Sage Handbook of Comparative Politics, edited by Todd Landman and Neil Robinson, 541. Sage Publishers, 2009.Google Scholar
- Hoffman, Stanley. “An American Social Science: International Relations.” Daedalus 106, no. 3 (1977): 41–60. https://www.amherst.edu/system/files/media/0084/Hoffman.pdf.
- Jackson, Peter A. “The Neoliberal University and Global Immobilities of Theory.” In Area Studies at the Crossroads: Knowledge Production After the Mobility Turn, edited by Katja Mielke and Anna-Katharina Hornidge, 27–44. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-59834-9_1.Google Scholar
- Johnson, Chalmer. “Preconception vs. Observation, or the Contributions of Rational Choice Theory and Area Studies to Contemporary Political Science.” PS: Political Science and Politics 30, no. 2 (1997): 170–74.Google Scholar
- Katzenstein, Peter J. “Area and Regional Studies in the United States.” PS: Political Science and Politics 34, no. 4 (2001): 789–91. https://doi.org/10.2307/1350268.
- Ludden, David. “Area Studies in the Age of Globalization.” Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad 6 (2000): 1–22.Google Scholar
- Manuela Boatcã. “Catching Up with the (New) West: The German ‘Excellence Initiative,’ Area Studies, and the Re-production of Inequality.” Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge 10, no. 1 (2012): 17–30.Google Scholar
- Mielke, Katja, and Anna-Katharina Hornidge, eds. Area Studies at the Crossroads: Knowledge Production After the Mobility Turn. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.Google Scholar
- Murad, A. “US Aid to Pakistan and Democracy.” Policy Perspectives 6, no. 2 (2009): 1–40.Google Scholar
- ———. “The Cultures of Area Studies in the United States.” Social Text 41, no. 41 (1994): 91–111. https://doi.org/10.2307/466834.
- Soherwordi, Syed H.S. “‘Punjabisation’ in the British Indian Army 1857–1947 and the Advent of Military Rule in Pakistan.” Edinburgh Papers in South Asian Studies Number. Vol. 24, 2010. www.csas.ed.ac.uk.
- Szanton, David L. The Politics of Knowledge: Area Studies and the Discipline. Edited by David Szanton. Vol. 3. University of California Press, 2004. https://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520245365.
- Tharoor, Ishaan. “The Taliban Indoctrinates Kids with Jihadist Textbooks Paid for by the U.S.” The Washington Post, December 2014. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2014/12/08/the-taliban-indoctrinates-kids-with-jihadist-textbooks-paid-for-by-the-u-s/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.fe1c2c219d73.
- Wagley, Charles. “Area Research and Training: A Conference Report on the Study of World Areas.” New York: Social Science Research Council, 1948.Google Scholar
- Waheed, Ahmed. The Wrong Ally: Pakistan’s State Sovereignty Under US Dependence. Oxford: Peter Lang, 2018.Google Scholar
- Weinbaum, Marvin G., and Jonathan B. Harder. “Pakistan’s Afghan Policies and Their Consequences.” Contemporary South Asia 16, no. 1 (March 6, 2008): 25–38.Google Scholar