• Du HuynhEmail author
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Regional Science book series (BRIEFSREGION)


Seoul is the most successful of the five cities. It has all five factors of success. First, the national development strategy was clear since the early 1960; thus, Seoul has been prioritized for the country’s development. Second, Seoul has been allowed to keep a fair share of the budget revenue and expenditure. Its expenditure to the GDP is over 10 percent, about a half of the national one. Third, long-term strategies have been consistently promoted. Fourth, there have been many public entrepreneurs with powerful supporting coalitions and political terms are not necessarily a major constraint for achievements. Fifth, a centralized municipal government is positive for Seoul’s development. However, the role of urban planning is limited.


Seoul South Korea Development strategy Public entrepreneurship Miracle 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fulbright University VietnamHo Chi MinhVietnam

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