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Regulation of Autophagy by mTOR Signaling Pathway

  • Ying Wang
  • Hongbing ZhangEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1206)

Abstract

Autophagy plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, and is closely related to the occurrence of variety of human diseases. It is known that autophagy occurs in response to various environmental stresses such as nutrient deficiency, growth factor deficiency, and hypoxia. Induced autophagy eliminates the damage caused by these stresses and returns to normal levels when the stresses are relieved. To comprehend the induction of autophagy under various stress conditions and the effects of autophagy on the life processes of cells, it is necessary to understand how autophagy is regulated. Many studies have shown that a number of signal transduction pathways are involved in the regulation of autophagy. Among these pathways, some pathways converge at the target of rapamycin (TOR), a highly conserved kinase important for autophagy regulation. This review will focus on the role of TOR signaling pathway in the regulation of autophagy.

Keywords

TOR Autophagy Regulation 

Abbreviation

AKT

v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog

AMBRA1

Autophagy/beclin-1 regulator 1

AMPK

AMP-activated protein kinase

Arf1

Adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor 1

ATG

Autophagy-related genes

DAP1

Death-associated protein 1

FKBP12

FK506-binding protein, 12 kDa molecular weight

FRB

FKBP12-Rapamycin Binding

GEF

Guanine exchange factor

HAT

Histone acetyltransferase

IGF1

Insulin-like growth factor1

IRS

Insulin receptor substrates

MITF

Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin, which has been renamed as mechanistic target of rapamycin

PDK1

3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1

PDK2

3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 2

PI3K CI

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase ClassI

PI3K C III

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Class III

PKK

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinase

RB1CC1

RB1-inducible coiled-coil protein 1

REDD1

Regulated in development and DNA damage 1

TFEB

Transcription factor EB

TFE3

Transcription factor E3

TOR

Target of rapamycin

TORC1

Target of rapamycin complex 1

TORC2

Target of rapamycin complex 2

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Copyright information

© Science Press and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeInstitute of Basic Medical SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Molecular OrthopedicsBeijing Research Institute of Traumatology and OrthopaedicsBeijingChina

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