Advertisement

The DMLL as a Roadmap to Learning

  • Joseph ShaulesEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter describes the roadmap to learning as described by the DMLL. It looks at the different levels of learning that lead to a more linguaculture self, the subjective sense that foreign linguaculture patterns are increasingly embodied, and experienced as a natural part of the self. The DMLL assumes that developing the learner’s linguaculture self is an important goal of language and culture pedagogy. A distinction is made between performance, and the development of the learning self. The notion of self is contrasted with the notion of identity. According to the DMLL, the experience of the self changes as learners develop new linguaculture intuitions. The development of the linguaculture self is described in terms of the four levels of encountering; experimenting; integrating, and bridging.

References

  1. Amodio, David M., and Saaid A. Mendoza. 2010. Implicit intergroup bias: Cognitive, affective, and motivational underpinnings. In Handbook of implicit social cognition: Measurement, theory, and applications, ed. B. Gawronski and K. Payne. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  2. Ashmore, Richard D., and Lee Jussim. 1997. Self and identity: Fundamental issues. New York, YN: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Baumeister, Roy F. 2005. Identity, self-concept, and self-esteem. In Personality: Contemporary theory and research, ed. Valerian J. Derlega, Barbara A. Winstead, and Warren H. Jones, 246–280. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  4. Bennett, Milton J. 1993. Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. In Education for the intercultural experience, ed. Michael R. Paige, 21–71. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.Google Scholar
  5. Block, David. 2014. Second language identities. London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
  6. Burke, Peter J., and Jan E. Stets. 2009. Identity theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Council of Europe. 2011. The common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment (CEFR). http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/elp/elp-reg/cefr_EN.asp. Accessed.
  8. De Dreu, Carsten K.W., Lindred L. Greer, Gerben A. Van Kleef, Shaul Shalvi, and Michel J.J. Handgraaf. 2011. Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1015316108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dornyei, Zoltan, and Ema Ushioda. 2009. Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. In Second language acquisition, ed. David Singleton. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  10. Harrison, Laura A., Curie Ahn, and Ralph Adolphs. 2015. Exploring the structure of human defensive responses from judgments of threat scenarios. PLoS ONE 10 (8): 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jackson, Jane. 2008. Language, identity and study abroad: Sociocultural perspectives. London, UK: Equinox Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Kim, Young Yun. 2001. Becoming intercultural: An integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Klein, Gary A. 1998. Sources of power: How people make decisions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  14. Kramsch, Claire. 2000. Social discursive constructions of self in L2 learning. In Sociocultural theory and second language acquisition, ed. James P. Lantolf. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Lantolf, James P. 2000. Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Norton, Bonny. 2013. Identity and language learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pollock, David C., and Ruth E. Van Reken. 2009. Third culture kids: Growing up among worlds. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Ros i Sole, Cristina 2016. The personal world of the language learner. London, UK: Palgrave Pivot.Google Scholar
  19. Shaules, Joseph. 2014. The intercultural mind: Connecting culture and cognition. Boston, MA: Intercultural Press.Google Scholar
  20. Taylor, Florentina. 2013. Self and identity in adolescent language learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wilson, Timothy D. 2002. Strangers to ourselves: Discovering the adaptive unconscious. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Japan Intercultural InstituteTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations