• Wenqi Wu


Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) was used for the treatment of renal stone. Because of the better control of breathing, general anesthesia with an endotracheal intubation is more preferred to perform in patients during PCNL. Numerous improvements have modified the procedure and lessened the analgesic requirements, complications, and hospitalization duration. Nowadays, PCNL can be finished under the management of general, epidural, or local anesthesia. Before anesthesia, appropriate anesthesia methods and anesthetics should be selected according to the special requirements of the operation. The administration of the respiratory and circulatory systems and temperature are the critical points in ensuring the safety of intraoperative anesthesia. This chapter also analyzes the advantages and drawbacks of the alternative options of anesthesia in PCNL. Anesthesiologist’s administration for the patient is as much responsible for the management of the patient perioperatively as the surgeon’s. A careful preoperative assessment and preparation are also crucial to ensure the safety of anesthesia. Rational intraoperative anesthesia management can effectively avoid the development of complications. Both surgical procedures and intraoperative anesthetic can contribute to the development of complications. It is mandatory for the anesthesiologist to be familiar with all kind of complications, especially life-threatening complications. Anesthesiologist should manage them with appropriate facility. Timely detection of intraoperative complications and early management help in the success of surgery. Finally, early postoperative analgesia in clinical practice also plays a positive role in patients’ recovery after PCNL.


Percutaneous nephrolithotomy General anesthesia Regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Complication 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenqi Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urology and Guangdong Key Laboratory of UrologyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina

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