Training in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

  • Abdullatif Aydın
  • Ahmed Al-Jabir
  • Brandon Smith
  • Kamran AhmedEmail author


With limited time for training, simulation is becoming an essential element of modern surgical training to establish procedural competency. Whilst training tools and assessment methods are well-established in other urological procedures, there is a paucity of research and well-validated models for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) training. Various bench models as well as a select number of wet-lab and virtual reality models exist. Additionally, assessment tools are being developed for objective assessment of surgical competency in PCNL; however, these are in their infancy. It is recommended that urological trainees undergo training in PCNL in a modular fashion comprising progression from virtual reality models and bench models to wet-lab and cadaveric training, before moving on to modular operating room training and mastery of the procedure.


Surgical simulation Training Assessment Nephrolithiasis Percutaneous nephrolithotomy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdullatif Aydın
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ahmed Al-Jabir
    • 1
  • Brandon Smith
    • 1
  • Kamran Ahmed
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.MRC Centre for Transplantation, King’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.The London Clinic Centre for RoboticsLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of UrologyKing’s College Hospital NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK

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